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Feminist perspectives : The contribution of Ann Ticker to the revision of the concept of security

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Ann Tickner and realism.
    1. Defining realism.
    2. A security dilemma.
  3. The critics toward realism.
  4. Security after the end of the Cold War.
    1. Questioning the study of security.
    2. Emphasis put on 'structural violence'.
    3. Putting the individual at the centre.
  5. The aim of Ann Tickner.
    1. Emphasizing on the discriminations women are victims of.
    2. Women as second rank citizens.
  6. 'Gendering world's politics'.
    1. Gender as a key concept in feminist theories.
    2. Gender: Central to war and peace.
    3. Women's image in wartime.
    4. The association of men with war and national security.
  7. Stereotypes in gendered images about warriors.
  8. Support for the idea that women in power would lead to a weaker State.
  9. Ann Tickner's lessons drawn from 9/11.
    1. The highly masculine depiction of war.
    2. Women bear the highest burden for religion and culture.
    3. Thinking of security, development and peace in terms of gender.
  10. Conclusion.
  11. Bibliography.

As a searcher in international relations, Ann Tickner was firstly stroke by the law number of women working in the field. She then realised that not only were women excluded as researchers, but also as subjects of study. That was the first step of her carrier as one of the main feminist authors in international relations theory. The work of Ann Tickner relies on classical visions of security and on their challengers, to introduce a brand new vision of International relations based on the concept of gender. Her main query was to know how the International Relations field would look in we introduced women in the field. International relations studies were born with realism, in the aftermath of the Second World War. For realist thinkers, security is defined in terms of national security. National security comes from power, in an anarchical world where no structure exists to regulate the relations between countries. Ann Tickner defines realism as concentrated on the ?security of the State, which has to be achieved by increasing military capacities.? The boundary between the state order and the international anarchy is tight, due to the lack of a central authority, which would ?curve power's aggressive ambitions? .

[...] After 1990 and the end of the cold war, re-analyses of security came from many sources, since classical theories revealed unable to cope with the new international givens. Policy makers, as well as academics from both West and East sides were trying to give ?security? a new meaning. The critics toward realism have actually already begun during the cold war. Hendley for instance, stated already in 1965 that realism theories were too ethnocentric to systematize international relations[4]. It was also discussed to restrain many important fields, and especially economics, into politics? issues. [...]

[...] To Tickner, this situation justifies in itself the need for a definition of security that would be ?people-centred and transcends state and regional boundaries?[11]. But ?gendering world's politics? goes beyond denouncing inequalities between men and women. Ann Tickner, after other feminist theorists like Cynthia Enloe, demonstrates that the very definition of what is male and what is a female clusters woman in these inequalities, trough a patriarchal State. Gender is a key concept in feminist theories. Contrary to sex, which is biologically given, gender is socially constructed. [...]

[...] Feminist theory hesitates on this point, as on the question to know if women should engage in conflicts as fighter in the name of gender equality, or rather protest against wars, in the name of women's special relationships with peace. Ann Tickner writings don't give an answer to all questions, but indicates a way of looking for solutions in war and peace. Issues have to be reconsidered in gendered terms to be address efficiently. bibliography Tickner, Ann, Gender in International Relations, Columbia University Press, New-York Tickner, Ann, ?Re-visioning security? in International relations theory today, edited by Booth, Ken and Smith, Steve, The Pennsylvania university press, University Park, Pennsylvania Tickner, Ann, ?Hans Morgenthau's Principles of Political Realism: A Feminist Reformulation? in Millenium pp 429- Tickner, Ann, ?Feminist Perspectives on in International Studies Perspectives, Blackwell publishing pp 333-350, November 2002 Elshtain, Jean Bethke, ?Feminist Inquiry and International Relations?, in New Thinking in International Relations Theory, edited by Doyle, Michael W. [...]

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