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How does globalization affect women?

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  1. Introduction.
  2. The free flow of capital and trade.
  3. Culture.
  4. Women in the global economy.
    1. An overview: Statistics
    2. A closer look: Feminization of labor.
    3. Women's work and salary.
    4. Lack of data.
  5. Snapshots.
    1. A teenager in the Maquiladoras.
    2. A woman and her children in the Moscow subway.
    3. A woman leaving her central park.
    4. A young girl in Thailand.
  6. The cultural logic of late capitalism.
  7. The roles of lawyers.
    1. Access to the superstore.
    2. Representing clients.
  8. The role of women.
  9. Conclusion.
  10. Bibliography.

While women are obviously a diverse group, compared to men they are overwhelmingly disadvantaged economically. This is shown starkly with redundancy in U.N. data. The question here, however, is whether globalization improves women's situation or makes them worse. The answer, of course, depends on which women we are talking about and what is being measured. This paper addresses the question from two perspectives. First, it draws on the recent work of economists to provide an overview of globalization, then it takes a close look at trends and counter-trends regarding women's participation in the global economy. Even the most robust economic model, however, cannot convey the subjective experience of economically marginalized women. The second part of this section concludes, accordingly, with a series of brief narratives or "snapshots." "Globalization" refers to the free flow of capital and the removal of trade barriers between states, as well as to the accompanying cultural transformations and exchange. The relationship between the globalization of capital and markets, on the one hand, and the globalization of culture, on the other, varies depending on the context.

[...] Home- workers comprise ? l?rge ?nd growing segment of the l?bor force in m?ny countries. Wherever sex-?ggreg?ted d?t? is ?v?il?ble, it shows th?t more women th?n men ?re employed in homework. In Greece, Irel?nd, It?ly, ?nd the Netherl?nds, for ex?mple, up to 95% of home-workers ?re women. Women ?re ?lso pl?ying ? l?rger role in ?griculture. Bec?use of exp?nding opportunities for men outside ?griculture, l?nd degr?d?tion, drought, ?nd other f?ctors th?t reduce f?rm yields, men h?ve ?b?ndoned their f?rms, le?ving the women in ch?rge in Hondur?s, Nep?l, southern ?nd e?stern ?fric?, ?nd Yemen. [...]

[...] Unlike the cl?ssic l?wyer, she does not seek to simply represent her client's interests before the ?ppropri?te tribun?l. R?ther, she recognizes th?t those interests m?y not be cogniz?ble under the l?w. The economic rights of m?rgin?lized women ?re r?rely recognized in n?tion?l l?w ?nd only v?guely suggested in intern?tion?l l?w. The postmodern ?ttorney must find other w?ys to support her clients. ? C?mp?ign for Economic Justice, for ex?mple, w?s org?nized by women who h?d been on welf?re themselves. They filled ? bus ?nd tr?veled ?cross the country for two months, stopping for ? series of c?refully orchestr?ted meetings, r?llies, ?nd slide shows. [...]

[...] def?ulted on lo?ns to the It?li?n city st?te of Geno?. (Kristof, Wy?tt, 1999) For most of Western history, c?pit?l h?s flowed freely. The end of the Cold W?r ?nd developments in fin?nce ?nd technology combined to qu?lit?tively ch?nge the g?me during the p?st ten ye?rs. The f?ilure of Soviet communism bec?me the triumph of free m?rket democr?cy, ?s formerly closed m?rkets opened ?nd c?pit?l poured in ?t ? previously unim?gin?ble r?te. In ?ddition, the election of President Clinton in 1992 put ? free m?rket enthusi?st in the White House. [...]

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