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How has the rise of “militant Islam” affected politics in Indonesia?

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Observance of normal Islamic practices.
  3. Definition of militant Islam.
    1. Five groups of fundamentalist Muslims.
  4. Islamic Militants and Indonesia.
    1. This rise of Islamic militancy in Indonesia.
  5. Military in Philippines.
  6. Adoption of policies by Indonesia.
  7. Conclusion.

Although nearly 90% of Indonesian population is Muslim, Islam and Islamic issues have not become central subjects of interest permeating Indonesian politics. In the past, Islam in Indonesia has usually been portrayed as moderate, pluralist and tolerant in contrasts to parts of the Middle East . Indonesia has never adopted Islam as its official ideology and significant minorities of Christians, Hindus and Buddhists have freely practiced their religion, sheltered under the national ideology of ?Panca Sila?. Since President Suharto's rule, this nationalist vision of a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multi-religious society bound together by citizenship has remained at the core of national ideology . Yet, in the wake of Al Qaeda attacks on New York in 2001, and following the Bali Bombing attacks in 2002, foreign observers quickly focused on the rise of ?radical Islam? or ?fundamentalism? and started describing Indonesian Muslims as being increasingly pious and violent . Islam amongst political parties in Indonesia, though, seems to remain more characterized by its diversity and pragmatism than it used to be over the past decades.

[...] Effendy, Bahtiar, ?Islam And The State: The Transformation Of Islamic Political Ideas And Practices In Indonesia?, (PhD dissertation, the Ohio State University). Fealy, Greg, ?Islam In South East in Mark Beeson Contemporary South East Asia, (Palmgrave Macmillan), pp. 136-156. Hefner, Robert W., ?Civil Islam: Muslims And Democratization In Indonesia?, (Princeton: Princeton University Press 2000). Kramer Martin, ?Coming to terms: Fundamentalists or Islamists??, Middle East Quarterly, (Spring 2003), pp. 65-77. Lanti Irman, Islamic extremism on the Rise in Indonesia?, Perspective, (Singapore: Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies). Cited at Porter, [...]

[...] This rise of Islamic militancy in Indonesia has been attributed to an array of international factors. As in other parts of the world, modern Islam went through major political and philosophical developments but it was not until the 1980s that it became powerfully militant[xxiv]. The Khomenist revolution in Iran provided an inspiration to many radicals and served as an example that an Islamic state could be established using violent means[xxv].During the conflict against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, many militant Islamists came together to defend believers invaded by an atheist force. [...]

[...] [xxii] Irman Lanti, Islamic extremism on the Rise in Indonesia?. [xxiii] Bilveer Singh, Challenge of Militant Islam and Terrorism in Indonesia?. [xxiv] Donald J. Porter, ?Managing Politics And Islam In Indonesia?, (London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon 2002) [xxv] Kramer Martin, ?Coming to terms: Fundamentalists or Islamists?? [xxvi] Bilveer Singh, Challenge of Militant Islam and Terrorism in Indonesia?. [xxvii] Ibid. [xxviii] Ibid. [xxix] Ibid. [xxx] Ibid. [xxxi] Jones Sidney, ?Terrorism and Radical Islam in Indonesia?. [xxxii] Bilveer Singh, Challenge of Militant Islam and Terrorism in Indonesia?. [...]

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