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If you lack money do you also lack freedom? Please explain your position with reference to the works of at least two of the following: Berlin, Taylor, and MacCallum

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Meaning of liberty.
    1. The negative definition of liberty.
  3. Differences between positive and negative liberty.
  4. The concept of negative liberty.
  5. Criticism against the concept of positive liberty.
  6. Limitations of distinction between positive and negative liberty.
  7. Third perspective of the distinction between positive and negative liberty.
  8. Conclusion.
  9. Bibliography.

?Whenever a separation is made between liberty and justice, neither, in my opinion, is safe.? (Edmund Burke). Defining justice and how achieve a just society depends on the conception we have of the notion of liberty and equality. These two elements are the core notions of political philosophy since political theorists have constructed their theories of justice from these two central concepts. This is also what argues Edmund Burke in this quotation. In his opinion, no distinction can be done between liberty and justice; no justice can be conceived without considering liberty. The idea of liberty has such appeal that its analysis preoccupies most of political philosophers in very different schools of thought from Libertarians, Liberals, Republicans, Feminists, Marxists or Anarchists, each of them claiming to be its true defender. It is a topic debated in philosophy since Ancient Greece. The first deep analysis is probably the one of Aristotle in The Nicomachean Ethics with the notion of ?free will? or before then with Plato in The Republic searching to define liberty in metaphysic significance.

[...] In the second one, liberty is thought as exercising control over one's life (definition of Charles Taylor) and the absence of something can be source of coercion. In this view, if you lack money you will also lack freedom since you will not be able to live your life in the way you wish. Negative and positive liberty are not merely two kinds of liberty, they can be seen as rival, depending of the political ideal. This dichotomy established by Berlin is yet not accepted by all the political philosophers. There are other ways to think liberty. [...]

[...] The question is you lack money, do you also lack freedom?? It refers to these two definitions of liberty: if we consider that the answer to this question is No and that there is no connexion between the fact of owning money and being free and more broadly that only the presence of something can render a person unfree then we agree with the concept of ?negative? freedom. In the opposite case, if we thing that Yes, being short in money affect our liberty, then that mean we consider that the absence of something may also render a person unfree, this is the concept of ?positive? freedom. [...]

[...] The Code of Hammurabi (also known as the Codex Hammurabi and Hammurabi's Code), created 1760 BC is one of the earliest extant sets of laws and one of the best preserved examples of this type of document from ancient Mesopotamia. Example adapted from Carter, Ian, "Positive and Negative Liberty", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2003 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.). Berlin, Isaiah, Concepts of Liberty? first published in Four Essays on Liberty (Oxford: Clarenton Press, 1969), pp. 121-54, 169-172. [...]

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