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To what extent has the N.H.S. fulfilled its commitment to equal health care for all?

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Explaining what the equality of care principle consists of.
  3. The public expenditure on Health Care by socio-economic groups.
  4. The principle of equality of care, in central commitment of the N.H.S.
  5. The governments attempt to improve the equality of use of the health care.
  6. Conclusion.
  7. Bibliography.

Health affects every aspect of life, and it not surprising that health care is a major focus for social concern. Governments have been aware of the importance of the population's access to health care for a very long time and began to intervene in this sense even before 1900, in helping the poor people. However, the true first step in the state's intervention in health care occurred after the end of the second Boer War, in 1911, with the Health Insurance Act. It was a first step, but some important problems in the functioning of the system, as for example the difficulties of the middle classes to access to care, made changes necessary. Among the first part of the twentieth century, some others steps had been taken towards the building of a National Health Service (N.H.S.). In this, the Beveridge report of 1942 has been particularly important. We have had to wait until the end of the Second World War to assist to the creation of the N.H.S., with the ?National Service Act? of 1946.

[...] Judge, M. Whitehead, Tackling Inequalities in Health, King's Fund, London CH.7: role of the N.H.S.? by M. Benzeval, K. Judge, M. Whitehead, p.107. (Ed.) M. Benzeval, K. Judge, M. Whitehead, Tackling Inequalities in Health, King's Fund, London CH.7: role of the N.H.S.? by M. Benzeval, K. Judge, M. Whitehead, p.110. (Ed.) M. Benzeval, K. Judge, M. Whitehead, Tackling Inequalities in Health, King's Fund, London CH.7: role of the N.H.S.? by M. Benzeval, K. Judge, M. Whitehead p.100. (Ed.) M. Benzeval, K. [...]


[...] In this consideration, governments took measures to improve the allocation of health care in the country. We can look at that in studying the two main funding streams separately: Hospital and Community Health Services (H.C.H.S.), and Family Health Service (F.H.S.). Concerning the H.C.H.S, the most significant block of the N.H.S. expenditure is made available to regional authorities. The Resource Allocation Working Party (R.A.W.P.), in 1976, recommended that financial allocation for regional health authorities should be based on population estimates that had been adjusted to take account of local variations in needs. [...]


[...] Stacey The Sociology of the National Health Service, Sociological Review Monograph, Keele University Press pp116-117 quoted in: Julian Le Grand, The Strategy Of Equality, Redistribution and the Social Service , Ch.3: ?Health London, George Alle and Unwin Julian Le Grand, The Strategy Of Equality, Redistribution and the Social Services, Ch.3: ?Health London, George Alle and Unwin Julian Le Grand, The Strategy Of Equality, Redistribution and the Social Services, Ch.3: ?Health London, George Alle and Unwin Figure p ?Mortality by social class. Relative Mortality: ratio of rates for the social class to the rate for all males (females). SMR standardised mortality ration?. Source: Black (1980, p.32). Julian Le Grand, The Strategy Of Equality, Redistribution and the Social Services, Ch.3: ?Health London, George Alle and Unwin Margaret Whitehead, The Health Divide, the Penguin group, London, N. Y., Victoria p.243 Sir D. Black, Prof. J. N. Morris, Dr C. Smith, Prof. P. Townsend, The Black Report, Ed. [...]

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