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Chaos in Africa: Causes and consequences

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  1. Introduction
  2. The causes of African chaos
    1. Crisis in the states
    2. Effects on the economy of the region
    3. Destabilized societies
  3. The types of conflicts in Africa
    1. The ethnic or religious conflicts
    2. The conflict between the government and army mutinies and coups
    3. Organized crime
    4. The proximity of a crossing
  4. Consequences of the chaos and phenomenon of aggravation of the lives of Africans
    1. When conflicts become inter-state
    2. Mercenarism
  5. Onslaught of epidemics
  6. Conclusion

Ever since the end of the Cold War in 1991, Africa has faced ethnic conflicts that had led to the destabilization of several of its countries. It also paved the way for the collapse of regimes and led to large-scale massacres in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Rwanda. The neighboring states that were deemed to be stable were impacted by civil wars surrounding the incursions of armed bands of control. The conflicts on the African continent have claimed the lives of more than 4 million people since 1991.

[...] The democratic process has, in fact, exacerbated conflicts between the Malinke and Senufo in the north, and Bete and Baoulés sub groups in the south. The election of President Laurent Gbagbo has not calmed the situation, nor prevented the mutiny of the Northern tribes who have never recognized his electoral victory. Since the failed coup of September 2002, Côte d'Ivoire or the Ivory Coast stands divided. Similarly, the succession of President Eyadema of Togo, in 2005, was organized in very poor conditions. [...]

[...] The mercenary company has developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These private companies are involved in the protection of mining concessions. At the African level, the model is based on the firm Executive Outcomes created by Eeben Barlow, a former South African military personnel. EO boasts of having reversed the balance of power in the civil war that ravaged Angola for several years through a two- year contract signed with the government of Eduardo Dos Santos, for $ 80 million dollars. [...]

[...] The Sahel is a zone of recurrent clashes between Muslims inhabiting the desert areas of North and Christians or animists living in the forest regions of the South. The Sahel is the intermediate zone of savannas (between desert and forest) which extends from the Casamance region of Senegal to Somalia. All the countries on this band experience religious clashes (Liberia, Ivory Coast). Ethnic conflicts are superimposed between ethnic Arab and black African ethnic groups (Mauritania, Mali, and Niger) or between rival ethnic groups of farmers and ranchers. [...]

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