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Fascism in Hungary and Romania

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  1. Introduction
  2. Fascism as a modern political ideology
  3. The role of Fascist political parties
  4. Fascism in Romania and Hungary
  5. The key to the understanding of fascism in Hungary and Romania
  6. The role of failed liberal democracies in bringing fascism
  7. Romanian oligarchy in the process of complete development of fascism
  8. Failure of bourgeois Fascists in establishing modernizing dictatorship in Romania
  9. Oligarchy in Hungary
  10. Conclusion
  11. Bibliography

Fascism was a modern political ideology that sought to recreate the social, economic and cultural life of a nation by rooting it on a heightened sense of national belonging or ethnic identity. It is a political ideology that rejects liberal notions of freedom and individual rights, and works against the tenets of democracy. Fascism was an ideology that had significant influence in Europe in the early twentieth century. Fascist political parties emerged in the face of intense patriotism that grew as a result of widespread social and political uncertainty after World War I and the Russian Revolution. Fascism gained relevance in many European countries including Romania and Hungary. This essay will examine how fascism grew in these two countries, and from this it will be clear that fascism in Romania and Hungary could not grow because this political ideology was denied the political space in which to take root.

[...] The middle classes and the upper classes looked back to the past, a past in which it was their birthright to rule the dejected masses. This they were not prepared to surrender to the change which was in the making. Fascism has been shown to be a modern political ideology that had great influence in many parts of Europe, Romania and Hungary especially. This essay has examined how fascism grew in these two countries, and from this it is clear that fascism in Romania and Hungary could not grow [...]

[...] Not being hampered by any commitment to a holy mission in this area, the Germans did not wish to experiment during the war, and their traumatic experience with the Legion only strengthened them in this determination. But there is little in common between the unconditional, disreputable subservience of the Hungarian March Men and Romanian relations with Germany. As far as any possible cooperation between the two middle-class Fascist camps was concerned, there could not be any. The one in Romania was an updated oligarchy; that in Hungary was the Hungarian Nation supposedly rejuvenated through the spirit of the age. [...]

[...] One cannot overestimate the significance of the accommodating German attitude on the one hand and the Russian menace on the other when considering Romanian politics in general and Romanian fascism in particular. (Talavera- Nagy 1970: 275). By the 1930s, the political spectrum of Hungary and Romania was strange, indeed almost unique. Democracy and communism had disappeared almost entirely from politics as forces of consequence. The staggering problems that remained had to be coped with outside the framework of these ideas. [...]

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