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Is culture an intrinsic element of management and leadership: Eastern Europe against Western Europe?

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  1. Introduction
  2. Presentation of the European continent
  3. Ceausescu in Romania
    1. Presentation of Romania
    2. Nicolae Ceausescu
    3. Francisco Franco
  4. Walesa in Poland
    1. Presentation of Poland
    2. Lech Walesa: A leader in solidarity
    3. Maurice Thorez: A directive leader
  5. Lenin in Russia
    1. Presentation of Russia
    2. Lenin: A revolutionary leader
    3. Poincare: A visionary leader
  6. Skoda in Czech Republic
    1. Presentation of Czech Republic
    2. Emile Skoda: A pacesetting leader
    3. Andre Citroen: A supportive leader
  7. Nagy in Hungary
    1. Presentation of Hungary
    2. Imre Nagy: A charismatic anti-communist leader
    3. De Gaulle: The free French leader
  8. Conclusion
  9. Bibliography

Since the quickening of the Industrial Revolution in United Kingdom in 1850 there is no doubt that Europe sustained important cultural changes. The aura of this revolution crossed the Channel and pervaded in Europe but only went in western countries ready to change, France the first, then Germany, Italy, Spain, northern countries and until Austria. In addition, the impact of this industrial revolution was more limited beyond these countries, Poland, Russia and other countries of Eastern Europe were tardier in the evolution of their industry despite some exceptions. There is no denying that this revolution thus permitted a boom of new systems of management, Taylorism and Fordism for example and many others.

Moreover, the culture of each country of Europe has changed during the first quarter of the 20th Century according to the evolution of mentalities and parameters linked to the impact of the revolution. Totally new thoughts and personalities brought out and mainly in Western Europe but until Western Europe too (delimited from Hungary to the present Russia). Religion, Art, Politics, Industry, Science were involved.

This revolution was an entire upset which in some way separated Europe between a productive one in the west and another latecomer one in the east. It thus appeared from this period some fundamental differences in terms of culture, on the one hand a more liberal culture and on the other hand a more sovietized culture, due to the hegemony of Russia on its satellite states. In a second time, the first and second world wars spawned eastern and western military blocks which deg gaps between cultures, mind and management systems because of the influence of different political systems, leaders, ideologies.

[...] The recent history of Europe is marked by the two world wars and the cold war that divided the continent in two blocs: Western Europe was under the influence of United States of America (USA) although Eastern Europe was under the control of USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). Since the end of the Second World War the construction of the European Union began. Some countries of the East of Europe joined it the 1st of January 2004. European Union is the first economic power of the world before the USA and the first exporter of the world. [...]

[...] There is no doubt that the leadership system of Franco is similar as Ceausescu's even if they belong to Eastern and Western Europe. Franco, according to his very classical education, fought all things which were on the contrary of what he received in terms of culture. Thus, leadership of Franco was based on his beliefs and his references. The fact that Ceausescu wanted to rally Romanian people around historical personalities and his wish to become a new ?Hitler' or a new ?Stalin' with a dictatorial system show us that culture is in the middle of leadership Walesa in Poland Presentation of Poland The Republic of Poland is a country of Central Europe with 38 million of inhabitants. [...]

[...] But the first one decided to fight against communism for liberating workers from this Iron hand and the second one believed that communism was the true response for improving workers conditions Lenin in Russia Presentation of Russia Russia is a transcontinental country extending over much of northern Eurasia (Europe and Asia). With an area of 17,075,400 square kilometers, Russia is the largest country in the world, covering twice the total area of the second largest country, Canada, and has unparalleled mineral and energy resources and has also the world's ninth-biggest population. [...]

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