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Socialization of African American males

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  1. Introduction
  2. Theoretical framework
  3. Pragmatism
  4. Reconstructionism
  5. Agents of socialization
  6. Rap music
  7. Black barbershops
  8. Public schools
  9. Conclusion
  10. Bibliography

Was it great anticipation, good construction, chance, or the interplay of all three? Were the forefathers that crafty, or did their evil intentions take on a life of it own? Whatever it may be, the condition that African American males are in today is alarming. African American males disproportionately are suffering for many social illnesses, such as school failure, involvement with the criminal justice system, health care problems, crime victimization, and the large of rate of foster care placement (Mauer, 1999). For example, within the traditional K?12 educational structure, African American males disproportionately account for suspensions, expulsions, special educational placements, and dropouts (Polite & Davis, 1999). Furthermore, African Americans account for about 6.7% of the population in California, but 36% of the children in foster care, with males remaining in foster longer than females (Bowie, 2003). As regards the criminal justice system, Mauer (1999) cites the following statistics:

[...] Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework of this paper comes from two different schools of thought in philosophy?pragmatism and reconstructionism?which I believe complement each other, providing a deep understanding of social and the importance of focusing on the human experience in a social context. Pragmatism The basic element of pragmatism is human experience, or what William James (1890/1983), who popularized pragmatism, called the ?stream of experience.? Something becomes truth, James contended, if it is made true by events (experience), and therefore truth is not the same for everyone. [...]

[...] Although there are many different perspectives on why most African American males are not getting their educational needs met, I will only discuss a few of these to bring attention to a huge social problem that deserves much more research. Etzioni (1993), who coined the term communitarian school, recommended that schools need to do more than just be vehicles of transmitting knowledge and skills. They must also shape character and provide moral education. the moral infrastructure of our communities is to be restored,? he writes, ?schools will have to step in where the family, neighborhoods, and religious institutions have been failing? (p. [...]

[...] Agents of Socialization There is a need to discuss the agents of socialization that are relevant to the African American males' population to grasp a better understanding of current conditions. Berns (2004) stated that generalized community comprises many groups that play a part in socializing individuals. These groups or agents of socialization exert their influences in different ways and at different times? (p. 42). Berns (2004) also stated that, ?Each agent has its own functions in socialization. Sometimes the agents complement each other; other times they contradict each other? (p. [...]

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