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Towards a European social protection? Exploratory study of the processes of convergence and divergence of the national social protection systems

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  1. Journey to the heart of the optical fiber
    1. Optical memory
    2. Brief history
    3. Principle of the fiber
    4. Sources and detectors of light energy
    5. Comparison with the copper wire
    6. Limitations of the optical fiber
  2. Applications of optical fiber
    1. Telecommunications (Erbium and TP)
    2. Other applications.
  3. Appendices

In all states of the European Union, there is collective protection against social risks such as unemployment, sickness, disability, old age, survivors, family, housing, education and social exclusion. These are defined and implemented at national level. The provisions of the founding treaties did not confer any exclusive jurisdiction to the Community which has therefore limited to coordinating the various national social protection policies. Thus, harmonization was based on the idea of changes in legislation and addressed the disparities and aimed to bring social security to a national uniform system. The EU has so far preferred coordination. By this principle, national laws are amended as and when necessary for combining their respective operations, and in particular ensure the principle of free movement of workers and enable migrant workers within the community and members of their families to receive systematic social protection rules. The idea of a European social protection or harmonization of national legislation has a long record of more distant prospects that Member States wanted to retain from the beginning. They were given full sovereignty in the field of Security and social welfare and sought to retain their specific national systems. In fact, the Treaty establishing the European Community had not planned to adopt a common policy in this area. It was thought that the functioning of the Common Market and the implementation of the principle of free movement would lead to progressively European systems of social protection to "equalize in progress." The resulting economic and monetary integration of European integration would have led, in fact, to a certain convergence of national social protection. Moreover, during the1980s, the social protection systems have been challenged in all countries of the European Union because of profound changes in the economic and social environment in which they had been built. Built in a primarily national level, social protection has grown, until the 1970s, in a climate that was more favorable economically and demographically. They have sustained growth, full employment and demographic trends have preferred to reconcile social objectives and economic objectives. Since then, the compatibility between economic progress and social progress has no longer seemed so clear: the slowdown in growth and aging of the population made it difficult to find a financial balance of social protection.

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