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Cardiovascular lab report focusing on Amphibian Heart

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  1. Introduction
  2. The role of the heart
  3. Sustaining a certain rhythm
  4. The affect of drugs on the rhythmic beating of the heart
  5. The sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system
  6. The cardiac cycle
  7. The procedure as written in Foundations of Biology
  8. Discussion
  9. Understanding the mechanisms of the heart
  10. Conclusion
  11. References

The heart is an integral part of the cardiovascular system in the body of vertebrates. It provides the pressure needed for the blood to be pumped to different parts of the body. The heart maintains the flow of blood throughout the whole cardiovascular system. This in turn allows all the separate parts of the body to be energized with oxygenated blood, maintaining a stable internal environment.
The heart plays essentially the same role in all the animals which posses it, however its structural anatomy varies somewhat from species to species. Amphibian hearts have three chambers which include the left atrium, right atrium and a single ventricle.

[...] In this lab experiment, we dissected a live frog and inspected the contractions of its heart natural and drug-induced conditions. We hypothesized that the frog's heart rate would increase with the addition of Epinephrine and that it would decrease with the addition of Acetylcholine. We predicted that the heart rate would once again increase with the addition of Atropine. We also hypothesized that epinephrine would increase the intensity (amplitude of the heart beats). Materials and Methods My group and I followed the procedure as written in Foundations of Biology: Cell and Organ Physiology (Faculty of the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, SUSB, pg. [...]


[...] On the contrary, the parasympathetic branch is what calms the body down after extreme situations, returning the heart rate to a normal level, this branch is deemed the ?rest and digest? system (Campbell 1028-1029). When the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is stimulated Norepinephrine is released, increasing both the heart rate and the strength of the cardiac muscle contraction (Campbell, 877). Epinephrine is commonly known as adrenaline, and the postganglionic nerves release it upon stimulation as well, thereby increasing the heart rate. [...]


[...] Figure 5 was the graph for the mechanical and electrical events going on within the frog's heart after we added the drug Atropine, immediately following the administration of the drug Acetylcholine. This is an important thing to note, because without the drug Acetylcholine already present in the heart, the Atropine would not have had any effect on the heart rate of the frog. Atropine works by blocking the receptors for the Acetylcholine within the frog's heart, thereby decreasing the effects the Acetylcholine had, and increasing depolarization, once again. [...]

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