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Effect of discharge of domestic sewage on Coral Reefs in Southern Corniche in Jeddah

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  1. Background
    1. Research question
    2. Imminent threats to the coral reefs
    3. Sewerage system in Jeddah
  2. Methods and Materials

Despite the important role that coral reefs play in the ecosystem, various human activities have led to their destruction over the years. This is mostly due to the solid and dissolved wastes released into the sea with insufficient treatment. In Jeddah, the second largest city in Saudi Arabia, the situation is not far from this. One may be left, therefore, wondering if the discharge of domestic sewage in Jeddah is leading to erosion of coral reefs.

[...] The next step will involve measuring the temperature of every water sample before the beginning of the experiment. The temperature of ach water sample will, however, be measured and recorded at the source. This will be followed by placing the three water samples in a room, whose tempearture, light and air supply are constant. In order to determine the constant temperatures of the experiment room, the daily temperatures of that particular room will be measured and recorded at intervals of two hours for a period of three days. [...]


[...] Marine Ecology Progress Series 219-226. Spalding, M. D., Green, E. P., & Ravilious, C. (2001). World atlas of coral reefs. Berkeley, Calif. [u.a.: Univ. of California Press. Walker, J. B. S. C. [...]


[...] There are two sewage disposals in Jeddah. The old one is the southern Corniche and the other is the new discharge out fall a few kilometers south of the old station. The capacity of sewage in the new sewage discharge outfall is quite high and therefore the sewage is not properly handled to meet environmental requirements (Al-Farawati et al, 2009). Sewerage system in Jeddah Jeddah is among the top largest city in Saudi Arabia. Being the major urban center in the west of Saudi Arabia, it densely populated with more than 3.5 million inhabitants. [...]


[...] On the other hand, the results from the experiment involving sea creatures in the trasparent beakers will be differentiated in terms of temperature, weight and behavioral observations. The body temperatures of the specimen from each beaker will be measured in intervals of two hours and recorded, in order to determine the trend. Their wight will also be measured and analysed against their body weights before the experiment. Finally, there will be constant observations on their behavioral nature and the level of activeness of every specimen. References Abu-Rizaiza, O. S. (2000). Jeddah City with and without sewerage: Cost comparison. [...]


[...] Constructing Proper sewage treatment systems is expensive but is essential for the development of the coral reefs which are crucial to the economy of the country since they are a major tourist attraction. The certainly would not be any risk to the health of the people living near the coastline and especially lovers of sea food as the corals would be healthy and thriving with living organisms. PERSGA report, (2006) has shown that the ever rising population in the city is the major cause of destruction of the ecosystem. The few waste treatment facilities are overloaded already due to high amounts of domestic waste coming from households in Jeddah. [...]

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