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Innate and adaptive immunity

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Innate and adaptive compartments linked by dendritic cells.
  3. Innate immunity and the skin immune system.
  4. Monocytes and (Tissue) macrophages.
  5. Granulocytes.
  6. Natural killer cells.
  7. Adaptive immunity and the skin immune system.
    1. B Lymphocytes.
    2. T Lymphocytes: The major cell population of acquired skin immune responses.
  8. Conclusion.

Immunology has roughly been split into two major subdivisions: cellular immunity, which comprises all different immunocompetent cells, and humoral immunity, a collection of all molecules involved in immune processes, such as cytokines, immunoglobulins, complement factors, and many others. Serum studies revealed the existence of various functional factors that were able to immobilize bacteria (immobilisins) or to precipitate bacterial components (precipitins). We now know that these factors are specific subsets of antibodies. Knowledge of both immune response?related cells and molecules expanded during many decades, and at the time immunology was recognized as a separate scientific entity, the subdivision into cellular and humoral immunity was generally accepted. One branch is innate or natural immunity, which encompasses a variety of natural defense mechanisms, exemplified by phagocytosis and intracellular killing of microorganisms. That mechanism is greatly enhanced by binding of specific antibodies to surface structures of these pathogens (opsonization). The other major branch is adaptive or acquired immunity that deals with specific immune responses in which specificity for antigens is represented by T-cell receptors (TCRs), B-cell receptors (BCRs), and immunoglobulins secreted by plasma cells.

[...] Adaptive Immunity and the Skin Immune System In vivo evidence for the presence of acquired immunity in SIS is exemplified by the concept of immunosurveillance. When acquired immunity mechanisms are inhibited, as occurs in iatrogenic immunosuppression in transplant patients and in patients with HIV-induced T-cell loss, malignancies occur more frequently. Viral and tumor escape mechanisms are enhanced by diminished immune responses, and oncogenic viruses related to tumors as well as other malignancies arise uncontrolled. As compared to the physiology of acquired immunity responses in normal human skin, the pathology that results from ill-directed acquired immune responses in human skin is more familiar and better studied. [...]

[...] Innate Immunity and the Skin Immune System A variety of physical, humoral, and cellular elements together form the innate part of SIS. The general concept is that PRRs, which can be regarded as any receptor recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and capable of triggering antimicrobial function in leukocytes, are present on cell membranes or located within the cell. The PAMPs are defined as highly conserved structures of common pathogens that are essential for microbe survival and include, for example, components of bacterial cell walls such as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid, fungal cell-wallcomponent zymosan, and viral double-stranded RNA. [...]

[...] B Lymphocytes B cells are not a normal constituent of SIS but may be recruited during inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. For example, B cells and plasma cells may be encountered during many infectious diseases, sometimes scattered but often lumped in the superficial and deeper layers of the dermis. Remarkably little is known as to whether or not these intracutaneous plasma cells actually produce specific antibodies directed at the infectious agent in question. B cells may also be encountered as recruited cells in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and in benign lymphoproliferative skin diseases such as lymphadenosis cutis benigna. [...]

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