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Overview of manufacturing beer: Ingredients, processes and quality criteria

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Raw materials.
    1. Water.
    2. Barley and other cereals.
    3. Grain contents.
    4. Hop (Humulus lupulus L).
    5. Yeast.
  3. Making beer.
    1. Malting.
    2. Brewing process.
  4. Quality criteria of beer.
    1. Flavor stability.
    2. Colloidal stability.
    3. Foam stability.
  5. Conclusion.

Beer is one of the oldest cultural achievements of mankind and one of the most popular beverages all over the world. From the technological point of view, beer has four main properties based on its contents and manufacturing processes. It is (i) pure, (ii) wholesome, (iii) valuable, and (iv) it displays a variety of styles and genres:

(a) The purity is guaranteed by the natural ingredients: hops, malt, yeast, and water. No pathogenic germs are found in beer because of the pH-value, presence of hop substances, the anaerobic environment, the alcohol content and also the fact that yeast metabolizes nearly all fermentable sugars. Therefore, other micro-organisms experience a food shortage. Additionally, the manufacturing process is a clarifying process. Mashing, lautering, boiling, fermentation, and ?ltration separate harmful or exogenous substances.

[...] Yeast The following are the main criteria for a good brewing yeast: fermentation behavior (bottom or top fermentation), ?occulation (powdery or ?occulent yeast), fermentation performance (fermentation rate, degree of fermentation), production, and degradation of side products (aroma development, diacetyl removal), as well as intensity of propagation. Generally, yeasts are Saccharomyces yeasts and many breweries have their own yeast strains. In speciality beers different yeasts like Brettanomyces yeasts may also be used. In the brewery, bottom fermenting yeast mostly is cultivated at Pilsener or lager is general representatives of this genre. [...]

[...] The quality of milling has an impact on mashing and lautering and thus on quality of the resulting beer. For example, undissolved malt should be milled ?ner than well-dissolved malt because physical and enzymatic degradation processes are eased then. Mashing- Grist is mixed with water during mashing. Enzymes dissolute malt substances. Processes are regulated by temperature and its residence time (rest), pH-value, and water grist ratio (affusion). Generally, the same enzymatic processes take place as during malting; amylolysis, proteolysis, and cytolysis. [...]

[...] Oxygen is needed for synthesis of sterols (mostly ergosterol) and fatty acids (e.g. palmitic acid, oleic acid), although respiration is considered unimportant for yeast. Most of the oxygen is immediately esteri?ed. So a sterol pool is built up for yeast propagation. Oxygen is also part of porphyrin synthesis, regulation of gene expression, and the development of mitochondria. Aeration with m g O2/l is considered as suf?cient for standard gravity worts. Further nutrients that are needed in small amounts and are present in all malt wort are vitamins (mostly biotin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, thiamine for synthesis of coenzymes), purines, pyrimidines, nucleosines, nucleotides (RNA and DNA synthesis), fatty acids (lipid synhesis), sulfur (for cysteine and methionine synthesis), and phosphorus (in phospholipids, for phosphorylation). [...]

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