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Risk factors, etiological factors, clinical manifestations and specific implications of osteomyelitis

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  1. Overview
  2. Risk factors
  3. Etiological factors
  4. Clinical manifestations
  5. Treatment
  6. Special implications and prognosis

Osteomyelitis is a microbial infection that infects the bone and associated with fungi, bacteria, and rarely mycobacteria. The microbial infection causes a destructive inflammatory process. Osteomyelitis can happen in any bone in the body. The infection starts with an acute infection, which if left untreated can progress to become a chronic disease. Factors like the causative agent, the extent of and chronicity of infection affect the clinical manifestations, prognosis, and therapy of the disease (Kumar et al., 2013).

[...] D., Long, B. W., & Smith, B. J. (2013). Merrill's atlas of radiographic positioning and procedures (Vol. 3). Elsevier Health Sciences. Kumar, K. A., Karthikeyan, C., Kannan, R. M., Kannan, V., & Krishnamurthy, C. S. (2013). Foreign body induced calcaneal osteomyelitis?A rare complication of barefoot walking. The Southeast Asian Journal of Case Report and Review, 122-128. Peltola, H., & Pääkkönen, M. [...]

[...] Osteomyelitis is mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus in all forms of osteomyelitis. S. aureus causes 60-90% of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis cases in Children. The high level is mainly because of the skeletal anatomy of a child that allows entrapment of organisms. However, S. aureus is mainly seen in adults in around 75% of cases (Peltola & Pääkkönen, 2014). Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common pathogen in patients having prosthetic joint infections. Streptococcal species ate common in all osteomyelitis categories. For the neonatal period, infections are mainly due to group B streptococci. [...]

[...] (2014). Acute osteomyelitis in children. New England Journal of Medicine, 370(4), 352-360. van Asten, S. A. V., La Fontaine, J., Peters, E. J. G., Bhavan, K., Kim, P. J., & Lavery, L. A. (2016). The microbiome of diabetic foot osteomyelitis. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 293-298. [...]

[...] There are also risk factors associated with Neonatal osteomyelitis. Use of umbilical catheters after a complicated delivery or using regular heel sticks to get blood samples for laboratory tests has been linked to the growth of osteomyelitis in this age group. Osteomyelitis can also arise from direct bacterial inoculation such as traumatic injury or through contiguous spread from neighboring infectious focus. Direct injection may happen after a penetrating trauma from bone injury, fractures reduction, gunshot wounds, diagnostic and orthopedic procedures and animal bites. [...]

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