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Diptera: Two-winged flies

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  1. Introduction
  2. Biting midges (Culicoides)
  3. Blackflies (Simuliidae)
  4. Horseflies and deerflies (Tabanidae)
  5. Other biting diptera
  6. Myiasis
  7. Furuncular myiasis
  8. Migratory myiasis
  9. Wound myiasis
  10. Conclusion
  11. References

Insects of the order Diptera are characterized by one pair of wings. The second pair is usually modified to form a pair of drumsticklike structures known as halteres. A typical life cycle consists of eggs, limbless larvae, pupae, and winged adults, but numerous variations exist. Mouthparts are of the sucking type. Females of many species, although free living, take blood or other tissue fluids from vertebrates, injecting salivary secretions that are not intrinsically toxic but are potent sensitizing agents for most humans. Larvae of some Diptera are human parasites. Other adult Diptera feed indiscriminately on feces and human foodstuffs. These habits make them by far the most important arthropod vectors of human disease.

[...] Removal of the larvae by surgery or expression is the usual treatment for migratory myiasis, although local freezing of cutaneous burrows is sometimes successful. Ivermictin given to a patient with Hypoderma myiasis resulted in expulsion of the larva. The most effective prevention is control of the infections in domestic animals. Wound Myiasis. Opportunistic invasion of wounds by fly larvae is often seen during war and natural disasters, when injured persons are exposed to flies and medical facilities are inadequate to cope with the emergency. [...]

[...] Netting over the crib or pram when outdoors usually affords protection. Migratory Myiasis. One type of migratory myiasis is caused by flies of the genus Hypoderma. Adult flies are large and hairy, resembling bumblebees. Normal hosts for the parasitic larvae are cattle, deer, and horses. The flies attach their eggs to hairs. Hatchling larvae penetrate the skin and wander extensively through the subcutaneous tissues, eventually locating under the skin of the back, where they produce furuncular lesions. The condition has veterinary importance. [...]

[...] Seven species of flies were involved. Fifty Lucilia larvae were removed from the nose, mouth, paranasal sinuses, and enucleated eye socket of a hospitalized patient left in a room with an open window. The most common fly species involved are Lucilia (green-bottle flies), Calliphora species (blue-bottle flies), Phorima regina (black blowfly), Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis (flesh fly), and Musca domestica (housefly). The flies, whose larvae normally feed on decaying animal tissues, often deposit eggs or larvae in wounds or around body orifices if a malodorous discharge is present. [...]

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