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A study on biosensors

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  1. Introduction
  2. Biosensors: Past, present and future
  3. Properties of biosensors
  4. Principle and working of biosensors
    1. Bio catalyst
    2. Transducer
    3. Amplifier
    4. Microprocessor
    5. Display
  5. Principle of biosensors
  6. The biological concept
    1. Whole microbial cells
    2. Tissue slices
    3. Antibodies
    4. Enzymes
  7. Types of transducers
  8. Examples of biosensors
  9. Types of biosensors
  10. Biochips
  11. Applications
  12. Life on mars
  13. Advantages and disadvantages of biosensors
  14. Potential uses in virtual reality
  15. Future goals
  16. Conclusion
  17. Bibliography

A Biosensor may be defined as ?a compact analytical device incorporating a biological or biologically-derived sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physico-chemical transducer. The usual aim of a biosensor is to produce either discrete or continuous digital electronic signals which are proportional to a single analyte or a related group of analytes.?

Thus Biosensor is an analytical device, which converts a biological response into an electrical signal. The term 'Biosensor' is often used to cover sensor devices used in order to determine the concentration of substances and other parameters of biological interest even where they do not utilize a biological system directly.

A Biosensor is a type of probe in which a biological component such as an enzyme, antibody, or nucleic acid, interacts with an analyte, which is then detected by an electronic component and translated into a measurable electronic signal.

Biosensors come in a large variety of sizes and shapes and are used to monitor changes in environmental conditions. They can detect and measure concentrations of specific bacteria or hazardous chemicals; they can measure acidity levels (pH). In short, biosensors can use bacteria and detect them too.

[...] The micro-organisms were immobilized on a porous acetylcellulose membrane and sandwiched between an oxygen permeable teflon membrane and a porous membrane. Then, the membrane was directly fixed on the surface of the platinum cathode of an oxygen probe. A continuous flow system using a new microbial sensor was developed for automatic estimation of 5 day BOD tests. Furthermore, the BOD of various types of untreated industrial waste water can be estimated by the sensor. The BOD values estimated by the sensor depend upon compounds in the waste water. [...]

[...] Potential Uses in Virtual Reality: Biosensors potentially have a number of uses in the emerging field of Virtual Reality, particularly in the areas of user interaction and the development of these interaction devices. Biosensors could be used as powerful input devices for immersive environments. Imagine a virtual environment in which our entire body was immersed. This environment could react to hand or arm gestures, eye movements, or any muscle or nerve as input. These forms of input are attractive as they are somewhat more natural and intuitive to the user, as the user is accustomed to manipulating the "real" world with such movements. [...]

[...] The current success is with the glucose biosensors which are attributed to the extraordinary demands of diabetes and the ability of biosensors to offer a convenient, hygienic and compact method of personal monitoring. Biosensors offer enormous potential to detect a wide range of analytes in health care, the food industry and environmental monitoring. Professor Leland C Clark Jnr. has been clearly identified as the father of the biosensor concept. In 1956, Clark published his definitive paper on the oxygen electrode. [...]

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