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A study on insecticide treatment

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  1. Introduction
  2. Vector control
  3. Ecological control
  4. Physical control
  5. Genetic control
    1. Translocation
    2. Genetic sexing
    3. Sterile insect technique
  6. Chemical control
  7. Biology of culex mosquito
  8. Identification of males and females
  9. Classification and distribution of mosquitoes
  10. Materials and methods
    1. Rearing methods
    2. Insecticides
    3. Classes of insecticides
    4. Pyrethroids
    5. Etofenprox
    6. Fenvale rate
  11. Organochlorines
  12. DDT
  13. Organophosphates
  14. Malathion
  15. Standard procedure for insecticide treatment
  16. Evaluating the potency of insecticide
  17. References

Mosquitoes are among the best-known groups of insects, because of their importance to man as pests and vectors of some of the most distressing human diseases. They are the most important insect vectors of human diseases and the most common of blood sucking arthropods. They feed on amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, some with considerable host specificity. Mosquitoes have greatly affected the course of human events and continue to do so even today. They very actively transmit diseases like malaria, filarial, dengue, yellow fever etc.

Mosquitoes are small, two winged insects belonging to the order diptera which includes houseflies, stable flies, tse tse flies etc. The most important mosquito vectors belong to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Mansonia, Haemogogus and Sabethes. There are about 3,200 species of mosquitoes that are distributed among 37 genera. A few important discoveries made during the late 19th century namely demonstration of microfilaria in blood by Lewis in 1872 and malaria transmission by Sir Ronald Ross in 1897 opened up research under several disciplines, which progressively improved comprehension of filarial, malaria, and other insect borne diseases transmitted in the community.

[...] The concentration doses are multiplied by or 10000 in order to make positive values In the third column headed the log concentration are entered as corrected to appropriate number of decimal places The total number of larvae tested during the experiment is recorded in the column and the number of dead or moribund larvae entered in column The average percentage response of the larvae to the insecticide treatment is recorded in the column Pc = The probit of each r was taken from the table 1 (transformation of percentage to probit) and entered probit to two decimal places in the column The empirical probits are plotted against x (graph and a straight line is drawn to fit the points The expected probit Y is taken from graph The weighting coefficient for Y is taken from table II.( weighting co- efficient and and each Y is multiplied by the corresponding n and entered in the column and Snw is calculated The working probit is noted from the table IV.( working probit) The y and Y i.e. [...]

[...] The presence of insecticides in air can be caused by spray drift and volatization from the treated surfacel, the extent of drift is dependent on droplet size and wind speed and volatization is dependent on time after treatment the surface on which the insecticide settles, the temperature, wind speed and the vapor pressure of the active ingredient. The sources of insecticides in aquatic systems can be quite diverse, from chemicals being applied directly to control various pests., to runoff from treated agricultural lands or from the atmosphere during precipitation. [...]

[...] Paul Muller, a Swiss entomologist, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his lifesaving discovery of DDT (1939) as an insecticide useful in the control of malaria, yellow fever and many other insect-vectored diseases. Professor Janet Hemingway and colleagues at the University of Wales, and Dr Michel Raymond and his team at the University of Montpellier in France, have been studying resistance mechanisms in Culex mosquitoes which cause tropical diseases such as filariasis (in which parasitic worms invade the lymphatic system causing swelling of surrounding tissue). [...]

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