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  1. Introduction to computers
  2. Hardware
    1. Introduction
    2. Classification of hardware
  3. Central processing unit
    1. History
    2. Discrete transistor and IC CPU's
    3. Microprocessors
    4. Graphics processing unit
    5. Digital signal processor
    6. Architectural features of digital signal processors
    7. Audio signal processing
    8. Front end processor
  4. Information technology
  5. The Indian IT industry
  6. Development of information technology
  7. Importance of IT
  8. Growth drivers
  9. The road ahead
  10. Training and Education
  11. Bibliography

A computer is a device that accepts information (in the form of digital data) and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed. Complex computers also include the means for storing data (including the program, which is also a form of data) for some necessary duration. A program may be invariable and built into the computer (and called logic circuitry as it is on microprocessors) or different programs may be provided to the computer (loaded into its storage and then started by an administrator or user). Today's computers have both kinds of programming.

Most histories of the modern computer begin with the Analytical Engine envisioned by Charles Babbage following the mathematical ideas of George Boole, the mathematician who first stated the principles of logic inherent in today's digital computer. Babbage's assistant and collaborator, Ada Lovelace, is said to have introduced the ideas of program loops and subroutines and is sometimes considered the first programmer. Apart from mechanical calculators, the first really usable computers began with the vacuum tube, accelerated with the invention of the transistor which then became embedded in large numbers in integrated circuits, ultimately making possible the relatively low-cost personal computer.

[...] The time taken to access a given byte of information stored on a hard disk is typically a few thousandths of a second, or milliseconds. By contrast, the time taken to access a given byte of information stored in random access memory is measured in thousand-millionths of a second, or nanoseconds. This illustrates the very significant access-time difference which distinguishes solid-state memory from rotating magnetic storage devices: hard disks are typically about a million times slower than memory. Hard disk is the primary on line secondary storage device for most computer system today. [...]


[...] data that are part of the same overall project can be distributed over a network and embody the Sun Microsystems slogan: "The network is the computer." Hardware Introduction Hardware is a general term that refers to the physical artifacts of a technology. It may also mean the physical components of a computer system, in the form of computer hardware. Hardware historically meant the metal parts and fittings that were used to make wooden products stronger, more functional, longer lasting and easier to fabricate or assemble. [...]


[...] The management of the Information Technology environment implied the management of a queue of parallel problems, their detection and their resolution. By this I imply that although things were always theoretically simple, when this theory was placed into practice, rarely would everything go smoothly forever. Methods of problem resolution needed to be engineered, and problems resolved. In the very beginning the services of IT Management were conducted by heads of research teams, either at academic or other government institutions, or in exceptional instances, such as IBM, within a corporate infrastructure of research and development in the field of computing. [...]

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