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Time synchronization: A need for sensor network

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  1. Abstract
  2. Introduction
  3. Need for time synchronization
    1. Need 1 (TDMA)
    2. Need 2 (Sleep / wake scheduling)
    3. Need 3 (Data fusion)
    4. Need 4 (Localization)
  4. Source of errors
    1. Send time
    2. Access time
    3. Propogation time
    4. Receive time
  5. Issues in wireless sensor network
    1. Masquerade attack
    2. Replay attack
    3. Message manipulation attack
    4. Delay attack
  6. Synchronization methods for sensor networks
  7. Conclusion
  8. References

Wireless sensor networks are a new type of ad hoc networks that had drawn the interest of the research community in last few years. They require accurate, reliable time for many of its applications. The use of traditional time synchronization protocols for wired network is restricted by severe energy constraint limits in sensor network. The realization of time synchronized network poses many challenges, which are the subject of active research in the field. This paper discusses the needs for time synchronization, problems, and then presents the protocols or algorithms, which are developed over several years to distribute time synchronization within wireless sensor network. With this article we intend to spark new interest and development in this field. Keywords? Time synchronization, clock synchronization, protocols, wireless network, sensor

[...] V SYNCHRONIZATION METHODS FOR SENSOR NETWORKS Time synchronization in sensor network has attracted many researchers in the last few years. In this section we discuss some of the known synchronization algorithms. Only introduction to these protocols are provided, discussing the overall functioning of these protocols is out of scope of this paper. A. Post facto synchronization:Time synchronization in sensor networks has attracted attention in the last few years. Post facto synchronization was good work by Elson and Estrin [11]. They proposed that unlike in traditional synchronization schemes such as NTP, local clocks of the sensor nodes should normally run unsynchronized, at their own pace, but synchronize whenever necessary. [...]

[...] Prior work on sleep/wake scheduling assumes that the underlying synchronization protocol can provide nearly perfect (e.g., micro-second level) synchronization, or assumes an upper bound on the clock disagreement, and uses it as a guard time to compensate for the synchronization error. The wake period is lengthened by the guard time to combat synchronization errors. In practice, due to non-deterministic errors in time synchronization, synchronization is imperfect, and as time progresses, the clock disagreement becomes more and more significant. Periodic re-synchronization can prevent the clocks from drifting away, but for low duty cycle sensor networks, frequent re-synchronization would consume a significant amount of energy compared to communication/ sensing. [...]

[...] However beside these, energy efficiency and hardware complexity are other important issues which move researchers to think differently for wireless network from the wired one The phenomenon of time synchronization is to provide a common timescale for local clocks of nodes in a computer network. The network time protocol (NTP) for wired The outline of the paper is as follows: In section II, we briefly describe various needs for time synchronization in wireless sensor network. The need for synchronization is also there in many other applications, but the most famous are describe here. [...]

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