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  1. Introduction
  2. Relative aperture of a lens
  3. The covering power
  4. Focusing
  5. Depth of field
  6. Conclusion

The main function of the camera lens is to focus the image sharply on the film. But they do a lot more than that: the lens aperture allows us to control the amount of light reaching the film and the depth of the field. Lenses are termed as ?standard', ?wide-angle' or ?tele-photo' according to the focal length. But these are relative terms and differ from format to format.

[...] For example, a 135 mm lens of a 35 mm camera will cover negative size 1 X 1 inches whereas 90 mm lens of a 4 X 5 inch camera will cover a negative size 4 X 5 inch. Unless they are very expensive, lenses used in photography suffer from certain flaws which create distortions in the image. Distortion comes in two basic forms: pincushion and barrel. Focusing Less expensive are the point and shoot cameras with focus-free lenses in which the focus is permanently set. [...]

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