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  1. Introduction
  2. Deployment strategies
  3. Breaking the bandwith bottleneck
  4. Advantages of free space optics (FSO)
  5. FSO applications and challenges
  6. High speed building to building connectivity enable with optical wireless
  7. Conclusions
  8. References

Today's information economy depends on the transmission of data, voice and multimedia across telecommunication networks. Optical networks remain the most ideal medium for high-bandwidth communications for true connectivity. There are two distinct types of optical communications: Fiber optics (fiber-optic cable) and optical wireless systems based on free-space optics (FSO) technology. FSO is a line-of-sight technology that uses invisible beams of light to provide optical bandwidth connections that can send and receive voice, video, and data information. Free-space optics (FSO) refers to the transmission of modulated visible or infrared beams through the atmosphere to obtain broadband communications. Most frequently, laser beams are used, although non-lasing sources such as light-emitting diodes or IR-emitting diodes will serve the purpose. The difference in fiber communication and FSO is that the energy beam is collimated and sent through clear air or space from the source to the destination, rather than guided through an optical fiber. much used in the enterprise, mobile communication.

[...] Scintillation and Free Space Optics (FSO) Performance of many Free Space Optics (FSO) optical wireless systems is adversely affected by scintillation on bright sunny days; the effects of which are typically reflected in BER statistics. Some optical wireless products have a unique combination of large aperture receiver, widely spaced transmitters, finely tuned receive filtering, and automatic gain control characteristics. In addition, certain optical wireless systems also apply a clock recovery phase-lock-loop time constant that all but eliminate the affects of atmospheric scintillation and jitter transference. [...]

[...] Broadband Bandwidth Alternatives Access technologies in general use today include telcoprovisioned copper wire, wireless Internet access, broadband RF/microwave, coaxial cable and direct optical fiber connections (fiber to the building; fiber to the home). Telco/PTT telephone networks are still trapped in the old Time Division Multiplex (TDM) based network infrastructure that rations bandwidth to the customer in increments of 1.5 Mbps or 2.024 Mbps DSL penetration rates have been throttled by slow deployment and the pricing strategies of the PTTs. Cable modem access has had more success in residential markets, but suffers from security and capacity problems, and is generally conditional on the user subscribing to a package of cable TV channels. [...]

[...] The only essential requirement for Free Space Optics (FSO) or optical wireless transmission is line of sight between the two ends of the link. For Metro Area Network (MAN) providers the last mile or even feet can be the most daunting. Free Space Optics (FSO) networks can close this gap and allow new customers access to high-speed MAN's. Providers also can take advantage of Figure2: Mesh network Ring-and-Spur Architecture Ring-and-spur architecture is commonly used in metropolitan area networks. Here, the backbone is made of high-speed rings based on either fiber or FSO. [...]

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