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  1. Introduction
  2. Problem statement
  3. Purpose of study
  4. Definition of terms
    1. Proprioception
    2. Load
    3. Joint over load
    4. Isokinetic strength
    5. Bench press
    6. Novice weight lifters
    7. One rep max
  5. Assumptions
  6. Significance of study
  7. Limitations of study
  8. Organization of study
  9. Review of literature
  10. Summary
  11. Hypothesis
  12. Method
    1. Subjects
    2. Instrument
    3. Research design
    4. Procedure
  13. Data analysis
  14. Bibliography

Injuries and age lead to progressive declines in muscular strength and lean muscle mass. Evidence exists that age-related and injury related declines in muscular strength and lean mass (Feigenbaum & Pollock, 1999) can be impeded following mechanical stress on the body resulting in the form of resistance training. Recommendations made by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) regarding the importance of resistance training (Kenney, 1995), has resulted in health professionals more frequently prescribing resistance training for adults as a component of overall wellness and fitness program. People with injuries are also prescribed resistance training, to return them to their pre-injury status (Kenny, 1995).
Resistance training is beneficial for people in all walks of life, from children to adults.

[...] The research has been conducted on injured joints, (Ambrose et al, 2003; Freiwald, 1993) which could skew the results, since injured joints have decreased proprioceptory response, and the initial proprioceptory training may result in tremendous strength gains. However, it can be concluded that in some instances training proprioceptory responses can increase strength gains. Hypothesis Therefore, training with vision impairment can lead to increased proprioceptory responses that may in turn lead to increased strength gains, as evidenced by some of the studies conducted on injured joints. [...]

[...] The Accuracy of Prediction Equations for Estimating 1-RM Performance in the bench press, Squat, and Deadlift. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.11 211- Lord, S.R. & Menz, H.B. (2000). Visual Contribution to Postural Stability in Older Adult. Gerontology 306- Kenney, W.L. (Ed). (1995). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (5th ed.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Mayhew, J.L., Ball, T.E., Arnold, M.d., & Bowen, J.C. (1995) Muscular endurance repetitions to predict bench strength in men of different training levels. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 108- Mittelstaedy, H. [...]

[...] Proprioceptive and visual cues are both linked to stabilization during postural stability. (Golomer & Dupui, 2000) Balance control is maximally affected by the closure of the eyes and the vibration of the Achilles' tendons. Closure of the eyes has significantly more impact on balance control than a sway referenced visual surround. Kahky, 2000) Vibration of the Achilles' tendons appeared to be the most effective method disturbing the somatosensory-proprioceptive contributions to balance controls. (El-Kahky, 2000) Based on these results, one could speculate about the relative contributions of the visual, proprioceptive and vestibular systems on balance control. [...]

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