- PART I: The Kyoto Protocol
- Global warming
- The vertices of the earth
- The contents of the Protocol
- PART II: American diplomacy around the Kyoto Protocol
- General Remarks
- The positions of the presidents of the United States before the Kyoto Protocol
- The presidencies of Bill Clinton (1993-2001)
- The term of George W. Bush (2001-2009)
Chemotherapy a method that is used to fight cancer. Other methods include surgery and radiotherapy. Chemotherapy is a general treatment, disseminated throughout the body, aiming to destroy cancerous cells. Chemotherapy consists of anti-infective and antineoplastic therapy which acts on the reproduction and division of cells. Chemotherapy acts on all parts of the body and thus, treats the cancer cells regardless of the area where they are located. But the downside is that chemotherapy affects the all the healthy tissue that it comes in contact with and this increases the toxicity and reduces the amount of drugs that one can manage. The therapeutic strategies for cancer differ, depending on whether the cancer is localized or disseminated. In certain cases, it will be prescribed as a precautionary measure to supplement the treatment in order to avoid a relapse. In some cases, it will precede the surgery in order to reduce the size of the tumor before removing it. Chemotherapy can also be considered in cases where tests show that the lymph nodes removed during surgery contain cancer cells. Similarly, chemotherapy will be prescribed if the tumor has spread to other organs (for creating metastases).
Adjuvant chemotherapy aims to reduce the risk of developing metastases in the future. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not offered to all patients. It is given only when the cancer has a higher risk of causing metastases.
The process of administration of chemotherapy:
Some medications can be administered orally or injected intra-muscularly or subcutaneously. Oral chemotherapy is gradually replacing intravenous chemotherapy. The future lies in drug combination by the method of administration to release patients from certain institutional constraints. But so far, no effective combination of two drugs that can be administered this way has obtained a permit to be put on the market. Most chemotherapy treatments are injected intravenously. As the products are often irritating, a catheter is generally placed in a deep jugular vein or subclavian veins (the base of the neck). Chemotherapy cycles go on for one or several days followed by a rest period that allows the normal tissues to recover.
Each infusion can take several minutes to several hours, depending on the drugs used. Clinical and laboratory examinations of the patient are required before each cycle.
To obtain maximum efficiency of the treatment, we must respect these times and frequencies. The frequency and duration of chemotherapy depends on the type of cancer, the treatment goals, the medication used, the weight and age of the patient and the body's response to the therapy. Sometimes there are drug-resistant cells that may have been present before treatment or to have appeared for it.
Cells that are initially sensitive to a drug may have produce resistant cells. These resistant cells proliferated rapidly and are not hampered by drugs. The risk of resistance explains that chemotherapy can be locked into rigid rules but must evolve in response to the reactions of the tumor and healthy tissue. This resistance is the main cause of failure of chemotherapy.
There are about 50 drugs used in chemotherapy. The combination of several chemotherapy drugs is called combination chemotherapy.