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Common Clinical Sequelae of Aging

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  1. Epidemiology and Pathobiology of Aging
  2. Spectrum of changes produced by the aging process
  3. Effects of Aging on Specific Organs and Systems
  4. Age related gastroenterogic syndromes
  5. Age-related renal and urinary tract syndromes
  6. Endocrine system
  7. Clinical syndromes of aging
  8. Musculoskeletal system
  9. Prevention of Fractures
  10. Conclusion
  11. Bibliography

Increased longevity throughout the world is influencing medical care dramatically as more older individuals develop or survive with various medical conditions. Although some elderly present typically with single-system disease, they often have presentations and responses to treatments that are different from their younger counterparts. This variation in behavior of illnesses, which is due to the combined effect of aging and comorbid disease, must be understood if the elderly are to receive successful care.

[...] IMMUNE SYSTEM CLINICAL SYNDROMES OF AGING There are increased morbidity and mortality associated with influenza and pneumonia with advancing age and reactivation of infections such as tuberculosis and herpes zoster. The decline in immune function also may make it less likely that older adults will develop autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM The pluripotent stem cell and the erythroid and myeloid progenitor cells show no age-related reduction, indicating that there is minimal or no change in basal hematopoiesis during aging. [...]

[...] Aging is associated with a progressive decline in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and a decline in their corresponding receptors. A major functional change is slower reaction times, which may be the result of a slower nerve conduction or transsynaptic speed. The farsightedness of aging is caused by the diminished ability of the lens to focus on nearby objects because of its thickening and stiffening. There is reduced ability to distinguish colors, particularly blue, owing to yellowing of the lens. NERVOUS SYSTEM Overall transmission of light through the lens may decline by 50 to 65% between ages 25 to 60 years; as a result, individuals require more ambient light. [...]

[...] CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY The decline in renal function with normal aging reduces the clearance of many drugs, especially digoxin, aminoglycosides, and cimetidine. Hepatic metabolism also may decline with age. Oxidative reactions, so-called phase 1 reactions, become impaired with normal aging, whereas phase 2 reactions (conjugation and glucuronidization) are relatively spared. A clinical example is that diazepam, which requires phase 1 and phase 2 metabolism, has a prolonged half-life with advancing age, but oxazepam, which requires only phase 2 reactions to be metabolized, does not. [...]

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