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Pelvic Innervations

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  1. Lumbosacral plexus
    1. The femoral nerve
    2. The obturator nerve
    3. The lumbosacral trunk
  2. Pelvic autonomic plexus
    1. Presynaptic parasympathetic innervation
    2. The most caudal portion of the pelvic plexus
  3. Conclusion
  4. Document references

Surgical Anatomy of the Retroperitoneum, Kidneys, and Ureters; only the pelvic courses of its nerves are reviewed here. The iliohypogastric nerve (L1) travels between, and supplies, the internal oblique and the transversus muscles and pierces the internal and external oblique muscles 3 cm above the external inguinal ring to supply sensation over the lower anterior abdomen and pubis. The ilioinguinal nerve (L1) passes through the internal oblique muscle to enter the inguinal canal laterally. It travels anterior to the cord and exits the external ring to provide sensation to the mons pubis and anterior scrotum or labia majora. The genitofemoral nerve (L1, L2) pierces the psoas muscle to reach its anterior surface in the retroperitoneum and then travels to the pelvis and splits into genital and femoral branches. The latter supplies sensation over the anterior thigh below the inguinal ligament. The genital branch follows the cord through the inguinal canal, supplies the cremaster muscle, and supplies sensation to the anterior scrotum.

[...] Pelvic Innervations Lumbosacral Plexus Surgical Anatomy of the Retroperitoneum, Kidneys, and Ureters; only the pelvic courses of its nerves are reviewed here. The iliohypogastric nerve travels between, and supplies, the internal oblique and the transversus muscles and pierces the internal and external oblique muscles 3 cm above the external inguinal ring to supply sensation over the lower anterior abdomen and pubis. The ilioinguinal nerve passes through the internal oblique muscle to enter the inguinal canal laterally. It travels anterior to the cord and exits the external ring to provide sensation to the mons pubis and anterior scrotum or labia majora. [...]


[...] The most caudal portion of the pelvic plexus gives rise to the innervation of the prostate and the important cavernosal nerves. After passing the tips of the seminal vesicles, these nerves lie within leaves of the lateral endopelvic fascia near its juncture with, but outside, Denonvilliers fascia. They travel at the posterolateral border of the prostate on the surface of the rectum and are lateral to the prostatic capsular arteries and veins. Because the nerves are composed of multiple fibers not visible on gross inspection, these vessels serve as a surgical landmark for the course of these nerves (the neurovascular bundle of Walsh). [...]

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