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Tobacco and Health

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  1. Epidemiology
  2. Harmful Constituents of Tobacco
  3. Tobacco Addiction
  4. Tobacco-Related Diseases
  5. Cancer
  6. Cardiovascular disease
  7. Pulmonary disease
  8. Other complications
  9. Health Hazards of Smokeless Tobacco
  10. Second Hand Smoke
  11. Benefits of Quitting
  12. Treatment of Nicotine Addiction
  13. Recommendations
  14. Bibliography

Currently, about 46 million individuals in the United States are cigarette smokers, including 26% of men and 22% of women. People who are less well educated and/or have unskilled occupations are more likely to smoke. Smoking is responsible for about 430,000 preventable U.S. deaths annually. A lifelong smoker has about a one in three chance of dying prematurely from a complication of smoking. Smoking is the major preventable cause of death in developed countries. Other forms of tobacco use include pipes and cigars (used by 8.7% of men and 0.3% of women) and smokeless tobacco (5.5% of men and 1% of women). Smokeless tobacco use in the United States is primarily oral snuff and chewing tobacco, whereas nasal snuff is used to a greater extent in the United Kingdom. Oral snuff (snus) is widely used by men in Sweden.

[...] Other forms of tobacco use include pipes and cigars (used by of men and of women) and smokeless tobacco ( of men and of women). Smokeless tobacco use in the United States is primarily oral snuff and chewing tobacco, whereas nasal snuff is used to a greater extent in the United Kingdom. Oral snuff (snus) is widely used by men in Sweden. Harmful Constituents of Tobacco Tobacco smoke is an aerosol of droplets (particulates) containing water, nicotine and other alkaloids, and tar. [...]


[...] Risks are increased for coronary heart disease, sudden death, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease, including aortic aneurysm. Cigarette smoking accelerates atherosclerosis and promotes acute ischemic events. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE The mechanisms of the effects of smoking are not fully elucidated but are believed to include hemodynamic stress (nicotine increases the heart rate and transiently increases blood pressure; endothelial injury and dysfunction (nitric oxide release and resultant vasodilation are impaired), CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE development of an atherogenic lipid profile (smokers have on average higher low-density lipoprotein, more oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than nonsmokers do; enhanced coagulability, arrhythmogenesis, and relative hypoxemia because of the effects of carbon monoxide. [...]


[...] Health Hazards of Smokeless Tobacco Other oral disease also associated with smokeless tobacco include leukoplakia, gingivitis, gingival recession, and staining of the teeth. Cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco include acute aggravation of hypertension or angina pectoris as a result of the sympathomimetic effects of nicotine, hypokalemia, hypertension secondary to the effects of glycyrrhizinic acid, and excessive sodium absorption resulting in aggravated hypertension or sodium-retaining disorders. Second Hand Smoke Considerable evidence indicates that exposure to second hand smoke is harmful to the health of nonsmokers. [...]

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