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Community acquired pneumonia

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  1. Introduction.
  2. Etiology.
  3. Pathophysiology.
  4. Epidemiology.
  5. Diagnosis.
  6. Treatment.
  7. Health Policy Issues.
  8. The Role of Nurses and Individuals.
  9. Conclusion

Community acquired pneumonia is the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States affecting over 1 million individuals costing the government over $10 billion in treatment and patient care (Stanton, 2002). Statistics given by the US Department of Health and Human Services (2002) show that minorities are 3 to 10 times more likely to be affected than Caucasians, the elderly are 60 percent more likely to be affected than the general population and 1 million hospital discharges per year are attributed to community-acquired pneumonia.

[...] The Agency for Healthcare Research Quality funded the development of the Pneumonia Severity Index to help physicians ?determine whether CAP patients should be treated at home or in a hospital' (Stanton, 2002). Physicians are advised to use two steps: first, doing an initial history and physical examination using factors such as age, gender, presence of other illnesses and abnormal physical examination findings. Inquiry on tumor history, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, and liver disease is made. physician also determines if the patient has altered mental status, a pulse rate greater or equal to 125 beats per minute, a respiratory rate greater than or equal to 30 breaths per minute, systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg, and temperature less than C or greater than or equal to C' (Stanton, 2002). [...]

[...] Conclusion The early treatment of community-acquired pneumonia is the best form of treatment there is. CAP occurring regularly during winter or early spring should give individuals time to prepare for epidemics in schools or within a tight community. The government has developed policies that directly address CAP as a health threat to Americans. Although I would suggest more research conducted to better improvement of antibiotic research. The US, being very dependent on drugs has developed a dangerous immunity to penicillin and other commonly used antibiotics. [...]

[...] Community- acquired pneumonia includes pneumococcal pneumonia and mycoplasma pneumonia. Formerly called primary atypical pneumonia, this has been known to occur in schools and the military. Characterized by violent dry cough, this is sometimes followed by nausea and vomiting. Starting with fatigue, a sore throat and a dry cough, the symptoms slowly worsen. About 10 to 20% develop a rash. Occasionally, anemia, joint pains or neurological problems (such as meningitis) develop. People aged 5 to 35 are most commonly afflicted by this type of pneumonia. [...]

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