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Methods of transmission: Dengue fever

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  1. What dengue fever actually refers to.
  2. The first stages of Dengue I.
  3. Infection with a dengue II virus.
  4. What creature could be the culprit that brings about the spread of such a horrific disease?
  5. Global warming as a friend to Aegis aegipti.
  6. Recommendations of the The National Center for Infectious diseases.

The adventurous tourist, obliviously hacking his way through the jungles of Brazil, is first aware of a faint buzzing noise, then a tiny sting on his arm. The smack of his hand seems to have taken care of the problem: he has merely been bitten by a mosquito, so it seems there is no reason to panic. However, this mosquito wields a formidable threat. It carries the microscopic virema of Dengue Haemorhaggic Fever, for which there is no known cure. During the next few days, as the virus toys with the tourist's immune system, a highly uncomfortable set of symptoms will arise. This chain of events may have begun in a small flowerpot, overflowing with rain from a hurricane brought on indirectly by global warming and a collection of small, Japanese automobiles. A look at the larger picture will reveal that a myriad of factors is at play in the battle against dengue, a virus with a wicked, and fourfold attack method. If only the problem could be stamped out with the resounding smack of one man's palm.

[...] Much about the pathogenesis of the Dengue virus remains a mystery. Recently, scientists have been struggling to uncover the processes that occur in between the time of the seemingly innocuous mosquito bite and the terminal stages of Dengue Shock Syndrome. From the results of various experiments with flaviviruses, however, one can piece together a general sketch of the virus' tropism (movement). During the first stages of Dengue the virus enters the bloodstream from the belly of the mosquito. It is the events of this first stage that remain the most obscure and difficult to study, but the virus is thought to remain, at least tentatively, limited to the bloodstream, liver, and bone marrow cells. [...]

[...] Occasionally, these beginning symptoms will dissipate and then reappear, a tendency known as ?saddleback pattern (Spira, 1998).? Lapses in pain during dengue I often deceptively cloak neutralization reactions are occurring between the immune system and a mutating strain of dengue II, or DHF (Guzman et al., 2000). Unfortunate is the patient who contracts dengue II (DHF) after the primary infection, for this elder brother induces more gruesome ramifications than dengue which may run its course in as little as a week(Guzman et al., 2000). [...]

[...] Sometimes known as neutralization-escape mutants, these new viruses have proven so versatile in co-existing with antibodies (adapting in a single reproductive cycle) that all four strains of dengue have been known to cohabit the same organism simultaneously (Guzman et al., 2000). Genomic mutants of DHF from various geographical areas have proven themselves capable of infecting lymphocytes which are naturally produced in response to infection by a Dengue I type virus (Diamond and Edgil, 2000) in addition to a wide variety of other cell types including blood monocytes, liver cells, bone marrow, skin cells, and vascular tissue. [...]

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