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  1. Introduction/ Background to the problem.
  2. Pathophysiology.
  3. Clinical Presentation and Usual Course.
  4. Guideline Based Standards of Care.
  5. Nursing Interventions.
  6. Clinical outcomes.

Sepsis is described as a syndrome which is characterized by a general, systemic inflammation as a reaction of the body to infection or systemic inflammatory response syndrome, that is, cases where sepsis was also be observed to develop even in the absence of bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic infection. It is a serious and deadly condition which usually results from a compounded infection problem which may result from another disease, trauma, hemorrhagic shock, old age or a compromised immune system (Bone et al., 1992). Hunter (2006) explains that the reason why sepsis is rarely given attention and popularized for public information and attention is because it is not a disease in itself but a reaction of the body to a lowered immunological response. Nevertheless, it is a major cause of fatalities around the globe, with a predicted value of around 18 million individuals infected annually. In addition, reported cases provide an underestimation of the statistics in some countries where some cases are not diagnosed.

[...] The use of antibiotics to ward of pathogens during sepsis has been used as primary care for sepsis caused by pathogen attack. Usually broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is used (Church et al, 2006). Early adequate nutrition which could be administered via parenteral means and other intravenous fluids should also be directed. The infected fluid is also removed surgically and replaced through fluid resuscitation, hemodialysis and blood transfusion (Wolf, 2007) while some patients are administered with low-dose corticosteroids (Gropper, 2004) which aid in preventing dehydration, hypoglycemia and low blood pressure to occur. [...]

[...] With few surviving victims of this syndrome, European medical associations and the International Sepsis Forum has started a program that aims to educate people about the risks, causes and treatment for sepsis and invoke global support from government and private institutions in order to lower the reported cases of sepsis and septic shock and campaign for its early detection. Pathophysiology During an infection, the body's defense system is activated to fight the attacking pathogens. These invading pathogens, especially bacteria, possess receptive lipopolysaccharide (LPS) coverings or release exo and endotoxins that activate the T-cells and macrophages and trigger the Toll-like receptors (TLR's) to respond by releasing antibodies, eicosanoids and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukins. [...]

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