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Pharmacodynamics of substance abuse

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  1. General
  2. Introduction
  3. Addiction and psychological dependence
  4. Mechanisms
  5. Influences
  6. Awareness
  7. Therapeutic implications
  8. Tolerance and physical dependence
  9. Therapeutic implications
  10. Conclusion
  11. Bibliography

Abuse of pharmacologically active substances has attracted in recent decades numerous pharmacological studies, using a wide range of models and methods, and generating a considerable literature. Several reasons explain this trend: first, of course, the extent of the scourge, the severity of their individual and social, and finding effective treatments, but also the fact that this disorder is extraordinarily easy to reproduce in the 'animals, unlike many diseases affecting the psychiatric sphere. Hence the possibility of combining an infinite number of species studied, the modalities of experience, the products examined, the pre-treatment, stimuli, concurrent influences, tests and measures, to test hypotheses ever specified Correspondence and renewed fairly obvious between the laboratory and the clinic are on the whole a good relevance to all this research. In addition, finally the idea that this field of investigation explores a privileged interface between biology hard on one side and the other somewhat intangible psychological concepts such as motivations and emotions: the unveiling chemical substance behind our mental activities and emotions more elaborate, substance abuse awakens questioning our fundamental condition human.

[...] Conclusion A good representation of the phenomena involved in the pharmacological substance abuse be useful for any therapist involved in the care of patients or drug-drug addicts. The dependence of pharmacologically active is not just the big drug addicts. In its various forms, it affects a significant proportion of the population believe the abuse of tobacco, alcohol or coffee, to polypharmacy or overconsumption of psychotropic drugs that characterize our society, fond of self in all its forms. However, it is rare that an individual would first consult their doctor to correct a problem of substance abuse. [...]


[...] Of course, it would be foolish to try to reduce the whole problem of substance abuse to its biological, or taken over by the only prescription medicament treatment. Without denying the psychological and social approaches, we say pharmacology that simply provides some useful concepts in the understanding of clinical situations and rational decisions. The purpose of this manual is not to make an exhaustive review of the pharmacological literature on acute and chronic effects of different substances causing dependence, as we found in the description in excellent books. [...]


[...] Tolerance and physical dependence can be observed in laboratory animals, and also in clinical trials, in double-blind trials involving random substitution of the active substance with a placebo. For example, include an elegant study which clearly confirmed the existence of a physical addiction to caffeine: half of the subjects suddenly deprived of their daily dose of caffeine had fatigue, difficulty concentrating, slight signs especially depression and headache during two hours. Mechanisms Unlike the psychological dependence that appears to involve a mechanism common to all addictive substances, tolerance and physical dependence involve mechanisms specific to each product group. [...]

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