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Alcohol and pregnant women

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  1. The invention of television or a succession of discoveries
    1. The discoveries that introduced the invention of television
    2. The birth of the term "television"
    3. From the mechanical television (1925-1931) to the electric television (1932-1945)
  2. Television in the footsteps of players like the radio
    1. The FCC and Congress: state control
    2. The networks: diffusion
    3. U.S. companies: financing
  3. Television and the American public
    1. Television proved to the Americans
    2. The placing of television sets on the market
    3. Programs
  4. Conclusion

From the very beginning and throughout pregnancy, the consumption of alcohol is dangerous because it can cause significant risks to the child, complications in the pregnancy period like fetal growth retardation and premature births. It can also cause psychological or behavioral disorders in the children. Alcohol acts on the embryo affecting its nervous system and brain. Alcohol passes from the mother's blood to the blood of the fetus through the placenta. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is the leading cause of non-genetic mental retardation in children. Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure to alcohol. It is manifested in facial abnormalities, growth, damage to the central nervous system(that leads to nervous disorders) that can cause a delay of growth, cognitive deficits and learning disabilities, hyperactivity, impaired attention and memory, inability to control anger, difficulty in solving problems as well as a malformation of the skull and brain.

This paper is a comprehensive study of the effects of the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy.
It first gives us the features of a normal pregnancy, outlining the different stages.

The second part outlines the problems caused by alcoholism. Alcohol consumption in France and Europe is a cultural phenomenon but also a major public health problem. If consumed regularly and in large doses alcohol can result in health problems that eventually leads to death. Alcoholism kills more than 45,000 people a year in France.

The term alcoholism was first used in 1848 by a Swedish physician called Magnus Huss. He defined Alcoholism as " any form of alcohol intake that exceeds the traditional and current food consumption, or beyond the scope of social habits."
When one consumes an alcoholic beverage, the alcohol in it passes through the intestinal wall without undergoing any change. So, it enters the blood quickly and spreads throughout the body to the liver, heart and brain. It is the liver that bears the brunt of it as it absorbs 95% of the alcohol.

The consumption of pure alcohol in a year is estimated to be 11 liters, this figure places France in the third position in Europe. Consumption has declined sharply since 1970 (25 liters) while it has been the opposite in the case of other European countries. Wine consumption dominates(with 54%)against other types of alcohol (27% - beer and19% -spirits).

Consumption patterns are variable. Men consume an average of 1.9 and women 0.7 glasses of an alcoholic beverage per day. Adolescents are increasingly at risk as they are beginning to drink very early in life. 20% of the boys and 5% of the girls who are of the age of 18 have submitted multiple intoxications in the year.

Alcoholism in women has increased sharply and women now represent one quarter of the patients who have problems with alcohol.

Studies have shown that regular consumption of 1 to 3 glasses of an alcoholic drink is acceptable, or even cardioprotective, the risk threshold is set at 30 g of alcohol per day.

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