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Chemicals present in pool water

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  1. The invention of television or a succession of discoveries
    1. The discoveries that introduced the invention of television
    2. The birth of the term "television"
    3. From the mechanical television (1925-1931) to the electric television (1932-1945)
  2. Television in the footsteps of players like the radio
    1. The FCC and Congress: state control
    2. The networks: diffusion
    3. U.S. companies: financing
  3. Television and the American public
    1. Television proved to the Americans
    2. The placing of television sets on the market
    3. Programs
  4. Conclusion

Today, millions of people around the world spend several hours in a week at the pool. Swimming pools are one of the most popular sources of recreation worldwide. Swimming is an important sport that is considered to be very healthy and many people consider it to be the equivalent of a full workout. Swimming requires one to use almost all the muscles of the body.

Unfortunately swimming pools have a lot of chemicals in them. The water in these pools generally has an unpleasant odor that is caused by the chemical Chlorine. The use of the term chlorine is a misnomer, since it is not in its atomic form in this water; it is present as ions which cause irritation to the skin and has a negative effects on one's hair. On the other hand, many swimmers criticize soils surrounding the ponds because these are known to be areas where fungi thrive.

All these disadvantages occur due to the processes that are put in place to maintain clean water. The aim of disinfecting water is to kill the pathogens that could be a danger to humans if present in excessive amounts. How can one limit the dangers associated with the quality of water in swimming pools? And how are these treatments harmful to human health?

Untreated pool water is dangerous because of the many micro-organisms it contains and to limit this problem, people use disinfectants like bleach that are a health risk to human health.

To assess the water quality physico-chemical tests are conducted (to test the transparency, color, odor, ionic composition etc). A bacteriological analysis of the water is also conducted. Direct detection of bacterial pathogens is difficult, monitoring focuses on non-pathogenic bacteria and indicators of fecal contamination.

The dangers:

The authors of this paper decided to investigate the possible dangers of being exposed to chlorine:
Chloramines are produced by the mixture of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or chlorine (Cl2), and a solution containing ammonia(NH3). Chloramines are gases that are formed in water, and lie stagnant just above the surface. These are responsible for the smell of bleach, and irritation of the eyes, nose and throat.

The agitation of water, more heat and ventilation of the pool (which is almost zero), are ideal conditions for the formation of chloramines.
The amount of chloramines produced largely depends on the amount of ammonia (NH3) present in water, pH, stoichiometric proportions of chlorine and ammonia nitrogen, the water temperature and the time of contact.

The effects of chloramines have on the on the digestive tract and skin are yet clear because research on this subject has just begun. But some results indicate that there could be carcinogenic effects on mammalian cells

Inhaling Chloramine fumes causes the following problems:
-a burning sensation in the eyes;
- the same in the throat;
-a transient cough;
-a difficulty in respiration;
- people with asthma can even lose consciousness

Chloramines are the best known byproducts of chlorine but there are others. Different by-products have different effects.

There are three different chloramines:

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