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Hardness test of metals: An experiment using the Brinell test and the Rockwell test

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  1. Abstract.
  2. Introduction.
  3. Defining hardness.
  4. Measuring hardness.
  5. Hardness testing.
  6. Brinell test.
  7. Rockwell test.
  8. Experiment procedure.
  9. Summary of results.
  10. Conclusions.

Hardness has been defined in several ways over time, mostly by physicists, metallurgists and engineers. Different definitions range from hardness being defined as a collection of properties of a material more or less related to each other to resistance to permanent indentation. The difficulty to define hardness fundamentally indicates that hardness is not a basic property of a material, but instead, it is a composite of yield strength, work hardening, true tensile strength, modulus, and others factors.This paper investigates Hardness Test of Metals. In particular, it focuses on performing hardness tests on various metal specimens using the Brinell Test and the Rockwell Test. In Brinell Test the experiment concludes that the smallest indentation is close to the welded fracture indicating that the material is the harder in welded area compared with the middle of the sample. In Rockwell Test the experiment concludes that hardening of metal materials occurs during its straining because the molecules that float around within the material bound together causing friction and produce heat. This molecular regrouping gave additional strength to the material.
Keywords: Brinell Test, Rockwell Test

[...] Material is tougher closer to the fracture, and the ball is not able to penetrate more than in the area towards the middle of the material. In conclusion, hardening of metal materials occurred within material during its straining because molecules that floated around within the material bound together causing friction and produce heat. This molecular regrouping gave additional strength to the material. References Agricola, G (1556). De re Metallica. Dover Publications Inc. (Dec 1912) ISBN-13: 978-0486600062 Ainbinder S. B., Loginova, A. Ya. (1971). Investigation of the relation between the depth of penetration and indentation diameter in polymer hardness [...]


[...] The Experiment The objective of the experiment tested in this paper is to perform hardness tests on various metal specimens using the Brinell Test and the Rockwell Test. A list of abbreviations used in the experiment is presented below: PSI Pounds per Square Inch (U.S. Customary System) kg Kilogram in. Inches mm Millimeter D Diameter BHN Brinell Hardness Number s/n Serial Number Experiment Procedure Brinell Test The apparatus used for performing the Brinell Test is a Brinell Testing Machine, MODEL 4316, calibrated by: MICRO-CAL, INC. [...]


[...] Macro-hardness or macroindentation is also widely used for the quality control of surface treatments processes. Yet, when measurement is concerned with coatings and surface properties the macro-indentation depth is normally larger relative to the surface-scale features. Micro-hardness (microindentation) Measurement Micro-hardness measurement is defined as the Hardness Testing of very small or brittle test materials and very light loads that do not exceed 1 kgf (unit kilogram-force). Microindentation requires the use of a microscope to measure applied load, penetration depth and cycle time. [...]

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