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Common effluent treatment methods

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  1. Introduction
  2. Definition of pollution
  3. The literature review
  4. The waste water treatement
  5. The theory of gaseous effluent treatment
    1. Advantages
    2. Disadvantages
  6. Conclusion
  7. References

Pollution may be defined as any condition in which certain substances are present in such concentrations that they can produce undesirable effects or changes in physical, chemical, biological, radiological properties of air, water, soil. Such substances are called pollutants. The primary air pollutants are those that are emitted directly from the source, which include particulate matter like ash, smoke, dust, fumes, mist, spray and inorg. Gases like SO2, H2S, NO, NH3, CO, HF and olefins, aromatic hydrocarbons, radioactive compound. The secondary air pollutants are those that are formed by the interactions of primary pollutants and normal atm. constituents. These include SO3, NO2, PAN, ozone, aldehydes, ketones, sulphates and nitrate salts. The problem of water pollution due to discharge of domestic and industrial wastes into aquatic systems has already become a serious problem in the country. The water pollutants are classified into oxygen demanding wastes, disease causing agents, synthetic org. compounds, plant nutrients, inorg. chemicals & minerals, sediments, radioactive substances, thermal discharges, oils.

[...] The gas close to the negative electrode is, thus, ionized upon passing through the discharge. As the negative ions and electrons migrate towards the grounded surface, they in turn charge the passing particles. The electrostatic field then draws the particles to the collector surface where they are deposited. For industrial applications, vertical plates exposed to horizontal gas flow are normally used. Advantages Disadvantages 1. Press. Drop & power Relatively high initial cost and requirements is large space small compared to other devices; requirement. [...]

[...] It involves the transfer of the pollutant from gas phase to the liquid phase across the interface in response to a concentration gradient, with the concentration decreasing in the direction of mass transfer. Selection of scrubbing medium mainly depends on: high gas solubility and high selectivity between solute species, low vapor pressure, non corrosiveness, easy regeneration and recovery, low costs, low viscosity at absorption temperature, non toxicity, non flammability, and chemical stability, it should not cause the water pollution or waste disposal problems. [...]

[...] The sulphur content of the coal is converted in the process mainly into H2S and must be separated from the coal gas. This is usually accomplished by either absorption or adsorption. In the Seaboard process the gas is washed by a dilute Na2CO3 solution in a counter current absorber where the absorption of H2S takes places. Blowing air regenerates the solution. The removal efficiency is around 90% in single stage plants. WASTE WATER TREATMENT: Primary treatment removes identifiable suspended solids and floating matter. [...]

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