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Comparing the burning rates of two candles and the chemical reactions involved

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  1. Introduction
  2. Explanation of the method
  3. Equipments and chemicals required
  4. Procedure
    1. Liquids lab
    2. Candles lab
  5. Observations
  6. Calculations
    1. Equations for chemical reactions
    2. Mathematical calculations
  7. Conclusions

In chemistry and many other sciences, it is very important to visualize your data. In the world today, everything is visual: television, computers, and advertising ads and pictures. Because the whole world is so visually oriented, it is imperative to construct a visual out of the data you have. For this, we construct a graph. We see everything before us, and it is very easy to see the interaction between our subjects in any assortment needed. The convenience of graphs is unmatchable. For our purposes, there are two axes for the graphs. The x-axis is for the independent variable. The independent variable is something that is not dependent on any other variable in the experiment. Time and volume are the independent variables in this lab, thus their place is in the x-axis. The y-axis is where the dependent variable goes. In our case, the dependent variables are distance and mass. Both of these variables are capricious and change as a result of a change in the independent variable. As the points are plotted, we have to summarize the direction in which the points are going. We use a best-fit line to draw an average of what the points are showing us. This thread line is known as the slope.

[...] Make sure hair is placed black, jewelry is put away, and loose clothing is not present Pour 25 mL of water into a beaker Mass the 25 mL beaker with the water in it and record data Place 5 mL of water in the cylinder and mass it again with the water, record data Add 5 mL more of the water and mass the 10 mL volume with the graduated cylinder Proceed with the 5 mL increments until you have massed 25 mL of water Repeat steps 1-4 with ethanol and NaCl You must clean up your area when you are done. [...]

[...] The slope will be very important in that it will give us information on the burning rates of the candles and the densities of the liquids. The rate gives very accurate figures on how much length of the candle has been burned given any amount of time. The slope will show us the densities of the three liquids; this we will use as a basis for comparison between the liquids. Density is mass divided by volume. We now have to plot the points. [...]

[...] Our eyes don't give the exact measurements, we could have been a little off when measuring the volume of a liquid in a beaker. The triple-beam balance could have been a tiny bit off, this could have caused us a small error in our calculations. Because no computers were used for this lab, our recommendations are that you should ask two other people including yourself to take readings. For instance, you might have poor vision and you said that the beaker had 25mL of water, but the two other people say there is [...]

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