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  1. Introduction.
    1. Helicopter.
    2. Uses of helicopters.
    3. How helicopters fly.
  2. Helicopter rotor system.
    1. Single main rotor.
    2. The main rotor.
    3. The tail rotor.
    4. Metrology of tail rotor spindle.
    5. Material used for tail rotor spindle.
    6. Applications of titanium alloy.
  3. Overview of machining technology.
    1. Common machining operation.
  4. Process of machininf a titanium alloy block into a tail rotor spindle.
    1. Sequence of operations.
  5. Conclusion.
  6. Bibliography.

The Tail Rotor Spindle is the one of the main component in the Helicopters. The helicopters are used for transportation, for construction, for firefighting, search and rescue, and a variety of other jobs that requires its special capabilities.

Helicopters are the most versatile flying machines in existence today. This versatility gives the pilot complete access to three-dimensional space in a way that no airplane can. If you have ever flown in a helicopter you know that its abilities are exhilarating.

The amazing flexibility of helicopters means that they can fly almost anywhere. However, it also means that flying the machines is complicated. The pilot has to think in three dimensions and must use both arms and both legs constantly to keep a helicopter in the air. Piloting a helicopter requires a great deal of training and skill, as well as continuous attention to the machine.

Helicopters are classified as rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft to distinguish them from fixed-wing aircraft because the helicopter derives its source of lift from the rotor blades rotating around a mast. The word 'helicopter' is adapted from the French hélicoptère, coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amecourt in 1861. It is linked to the Greek words helix/helik= "spiral" or "turning" and pteron = "wing".

[...] This creates the ability for the helicopter to take off and land vertically without the need for runways. For this reason, helicopters are often used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft are not able to take off or land. The lift from the rotor also allows the helicopter to hover in one area and to do so more efficiently than other forms of vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft, allowing it to accomplish tasks that fixed-wing aircraft are unable to perform. [...]

[...] Forging operation is performed on the titanium alloy block 2. Then turning operation is done on the fork to get the desired dimensions 3. A hole of 23x59 depth is drilled on the turned surface 4. Milling operations is performed on the inner faces 75x57 mm by using 160mm milling cutter 5. Followed by the milling operation heat treatment process is done on the job 6. A hole of 2.5 mm diameter is drilled on the center of the fork and the edges of the fork end are chamfered to 1.5 x The fork diameter is reduced to 39mm by turning 8. [...]

[...] Fig-22 Two grooves of 2.9 mm wide is made on the fork DRILLING OPERATION In this process the flange end is inserted in to the chuck and the fork end is at the outside for machining, the chamfer of 1.5 mm of 60 degrees is produced at the edge of the fork end. Drilling operation is performed on the fork, the drilled hole is of 25mm diameter with 59mm deep. Counter boring operation is performed in the drilled hole the width is 14mm and the distance from the 25mm drilled hole end to the counter bored hole is 44mm. [...]

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