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Adult Crying

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  1. Introduction
  2. Literature review
  3. Literature review Gender, Culture and Personality
  4. Present study
  5. Conclusion

Adult crying has always been a contentious issue among all adults. Is it right for an adult to cry? How will people take an adult who cries often? What are the reactions when you spot an adult crying? These are some of the questions that run through everyone's mind when the thought of adult crying features in their mind. Many adults have learnt to conceal their tears in public but this cannot be said to be the same case when it comes to them being all alone in their homes. This being an issue in the society I set out to study more about adults who cry and how often this happens. To perform this study though I decided I would not generalize on all adults but I would base my study on personality, gender, and culture as the factors that are the variables among adults who cry.
In children, crying is mainly a way in how they express their emotions that range from wanting something to being in pain. One thing though is that in adults, crying is of a different level. An adult can express his/her feelings in various ways depending on the situation hence crying in adults is incomparable to that of children because adults have adapted to some situations in life and base their aspect of crying on factors that influenced them during growth, such as the culture they passed through, the personality they have acquired and what they have learned about being of a certain gender.

The following factors, personality, gender, and culture, are the most influential when it comes to crying as an adults. This can be seen in say several cultures that do not believe that a man should shed tears in public but this opinion is not applicable to the women. Boys in such cultures are brought about under the notion and the stereotypical belief that it is not right to shed a tear because when they become men they are figures to be viewed as strong and crying will be seen as a sign of weakness. This belief is majorly held by the cultures that still uphold tradition. Adult crying as you can depict from the above example is that culture and gender are highly considered as factors that influence adult crying. When it comes to personality, you will get that people are built with different emotional statures. Some are very emotional while others will take centuries for them to even think of crying.

[...] Excessive Crying in Adults: Causes & Solutions. Yahoo Contributor Network. 6311904.html. Lummaa V., Vuorisalo T., Barr RG, Lehtonen L. (1998). Why cry? Adaptive significance of intensive crying in human infants. Evolution and Human Behavior; 19: 193-202. Montagu, A. (1959). Natural Selection and the Origin and Evolution of Weeping in Man. Science (3388), 1572-1573.Vingerhoets, F.J. Van Bussel, & A.J.W. Boelhouwer (Eds.), The (Non) expression of Emotions in Health and Disease (pp. 303-321). Tilburg: Tilburg University Press Jansz, J. [...]

[...] (1994). Gender differences in personality: A meta-analysis. Psychology Behavior 429-456. Fischer, A., Mosquera, P., & Vianen, A. (2004). Gender and Culture Differences in Emotion. Emotion 2004, Vol No 87?94. Copyright 2004 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. Fischer, A.H., (1993). Sex Differences in Emotionality: Fact or Stereotype. Feminism and Psychology 303-318. Frey, W.H. (1985). Crying: The Mystery of Tears. Minneapolis, MN: Winston Press. Grossman, M., & Wood, W. [...]

[...] There will be a total of 150 individuals participating in this study. To have reliable results based on gender, the number of male participants will be equal to the number of female participants in each culture group. The participants will consist of friends and relatives who are aged between 20 and 45 years old. Participants will be selected on a volunteer basis from the three different cultures under study, European, Iranian, and Arab. The sample size for all the three cultures will be equal hence there will be fifty participants from an Arab culture, fifty from a European culture, and fifty from an Iranian culture. [...]

[...] In A. H. Fischer Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 189?211). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Bell, S.M. & Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1972). Crying and Maternal Responsiveness. Child Development 1171-1190. Belle, D. (1987). Gender Differences in the Social Moderators of Stress. In R.C.Barnett, L. Biener, & G. K. [...]

[...] (2000). Masculine identity and restrictive emotionality. In A. H. Fischer Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 166?188). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Kottler, J.A. (1996). The Language of Tears. San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass. Kottler, J.A. & Montgomery, M.J. (2001). Theories of Crying. In Ad J.J.M Vingerhoets & R.R.Cornelius (Eds.) Adult Crying: A Biopsychosocial Approach (pp. [...]

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