Council of Europe
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Julie Ringelheim also regrets the lack of definition in the Convention. The supervisory bodies have refused to broad interpretation But since large denominations, atypical movements benefit. No international convention gives.
Moreover, faced with this difficulty, the Strasbourg Court was content to assume that it was "a religion or belief": ARM Chapel against the UK on 14 July 1987. It is required, all the same, in an inadmissibility decision, that religion is "identifiable" X c. UK 1977. It should, in particular, establish facts proving the existence of religion "Wicca".
Similarly it is necessary to define the concept of "sectarian aberrations". This implies a radical alternative ideology, exclusive and intolerant. Its structure is authoritarian and autocratic. On the other hand, is made an exclusive interpretation of the world by suspicion and demonization. Its goal is the transformation of people in a kind of standardizing modeling. It also uses the multiplication of promises and assurances by exploiting anxieties, fears and weaknesses.
[...] In Europe, various measures are taken by the Council of Europe or by the European Parliament The intervention of Jean-Pierre Jougla (as part of a contribution to the study day of INGOs, Council of Europe of 28 June 2007) focuses on the confusion between cult and religion. The commenter confused sect and religion is the error behind which cults take refuge. "Religion is one of the masks adopted by sects". It should not be limited to the religious phenomenon to grasp the whole meaning. To cite this speaker, new religious movements are "new totalitarian movements." The concept of "cultic drift" must be understood "in the most open sense of ideologies, practices or essentially new age inspiration can drift towards a technical sectarian form. [...]
[...] Spain implements studies by administrations and associations or by private organizations. Over 200 sectarian groups are thus counted. Is set up control of illegal proselytism. Is, on the other hand, created an offense against the freedom of conscience is created. Finally, the Criminal Code was reformed in 1995 to allow the dissolution of associations whose purpose is lawful but violent or unlawful means. The operating Italy, meanwhile, in 1994, the first census of alternative religions: 366 sects. In the Netherlands, the question is eliminated from the outset in 1980. [...]
[...] The judge accepted that the association is engaged in the exercise of worship. She, therefore, the right to liberty. Hence the importance of whether an object has a religious sect, cultural, associative, sports, compared to financial or tax consequences that are not the same. Thus, according to Gérard Gonzalez, that on April in the judgment of the Strasbourg Court (1st Section), Moscow Church of Scientology against Russia, judges operate a consecration "all relative" of "religion" of the Church of Scientology. [...]