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Keeping fit as we grow older

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Focus Performance LLC
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  1. Introduction
  2. Problem statement
  3. Determining how much weight a person should use during exercise
  4. Recommendation by NSCA
  5. Manipulation of the visual system seems
  6. The modalities of sensory feedback
  7. Lack of vision and its consequences
  8. Hypothesis and research
  9. Data analysis
  10. Bibliography

Injuries and age lead to progressive declines in muscular strength and lean muscle mass. Evidence exists that age-related and injury related declines in muscular strength and lean mass (Feigenbaum & Pollock, 1999) can be impeded following mechanical stress on the body resulting in the form of resistance training. Recommendations made by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) regarding the importance of resistance training (Kenney, 1995), has resulted in health professionals more frequently prescribing resistance training for adults as a component of overall wellness and fitness program. People with injuries are also prescribed resistance training, to return them to their pre-injury status.

Resistance training is beneficial for people in all walks of life, from children to adults. A goal of resistance training is to increase muscular strength, and currently the method being employed is joint over-load. The current method tends to increase isokinetic muscular strength over a 6-8 week period and accounts for muscle hypertrophy and joint overload. Novice lifters tend to use muscle over-load as the only form of increasing strength. However, this method does not account for increased load on the proprioceptory response, which has shown to increase isokinetic strength.

[...] Data Analysis This is a quantitative study with pre-test and post-test data collected for 1 variable. This study will utilize a one-way between subjects Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). If a post-hoc test is necessary, a relatively liberal post-hoc such as the Sheffe test will be used. Bibliography 1. Ambrose, T.L., Taunton, J.E., MacIntyre, D., McConkey, P., & Khan, M.N. (2003). The effects of proprioceptive or strength training on the neuromuscular function of the ACL reconstructed knee: a randomized clinical trial. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 115- Baechle, T.R., & Earle, R.W. [...]


[...] Therefore, to conduct 1-RM tests in a safe environment it is best to conduct RTF tests. (Wood et al., 2002) Once a RTF has been conducted one must then determine whether closing ones eyes results in some change in one's body, and how this might affect strength. It is noted in several journal articles, that when the eyes are closed, the body relies on increased proprioceptory responses to balance itself. (Beaubaton & Hay, 1986; ElKahky et al, 2000; Hirata & Yoshida, 2000; Lord & Menz, 2000) However, most of the research has been conducted on lower extremities. [...]


[...] However, when determining how much weight a person should use during exercise, a percentage of 1 rep max is used. (Mayhew, Ball, Arnold, & Bowen, 1995) Moreover, determining the 1-RM is a difficult and unsafe for untrained individuals. It is unsafe to take an untrained adult to a 1RM to determine maximal strength. Accuracy of 1-RM is questioned, since performing a 1-RM requires concentration and entails considerable mental preparation by the lifter. However, it is difficult for novice lifters to master this technique, since they are unaccustomed insecurity of handling heavy loads, inadequate spotting assistance, and fear of failure. [...]


[...] Keeping fit as we grow older Introduction Injuries and age lead to progressive declines in muscular strength and lean muscle mass. Evidence exists that age-related and injury related declines in muscular strength and lean mass (Feigenbaum & Pollock, 1999) can be impeded following mechanical stress on the body resulting in the form of resistance training. Recommendations made by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) regarding the importance of resistance training (Kenney, 1995), has resulted in health professionals more frequently prescribing resistance training for adults as a component of overall wellness and fitness program. [...]


[...] Closure of the eyes has significantly more impact on balance control than a sway referenced visual surround. Kahky, 2000) Vibration of the Achilles' tendons appeared to be the most effective method disturbing the somatosensory-proprioceptive contributions to balance controls. (El-Kahky, 2000) Based on these results, one could speculate about the relative contributions of the visual, proprioceptive and vestibular systems on balance control. To support these speculations, one would have to assume that no modalities, other than vision, vestibular and proprioception contribute to balance. [...]

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