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  1. Historical origin and quick evolution to present day
    1. Current types of action research
    2. Application of action research
    3. Action research in education
  2. Methods/Models of action research
    1. Technical model
    2. Practical model
    3. Emancipatory model
    4. Transformational model
    5. Most commonly used action-research model in education
  3. Cycles of action research
    1. Plan
    2. Act
    3. Observe
    4. Reflect
  4. Application examples
  5. Contributions of action research

Recently, most researchers have cited that they incorporate action research in the problem solving initiatives (Groundwater - Smith, 2009; Dick, Stringer, & Huxham, 2009). As a result, this paper discusses what action research is and how it can be applied to produce actual solutions for actual problems in the society. It further discusses the origin of action research by different scholars and its development to the present state. However, it has a specific focus of action research application in mathematics and how mathematics teachers can apply action research to solve challenges in their mathematics lessons. It incorporates a discussion of the main methods/models of action research as well as the action research cycle. The most commonly used method is pointed out as well as how action research is used as a scientific methodology during research.

[...] It is widely known that there is a specific focus of action research in education (Kitchen & Stevens, 2008). As such, its main goal is to help in the determination of ways that can be used in enhancing the lives of children (Sommer, 2009). Teachers need to look for the ways that they can use to improve their knowledge of education so that they can pass it to the students. All together, action research can assist in the enhancement of the lives for those teachers in the profession and have specialized in the application of their skills in the educational systems (Foster, 2014). [...]


[...] This has a close relationship with the origin of action research as postulated by Kurt Lewin and as utilized in the rational management of socially related issues (Martz Jr. & Sakaguchi, 2010). He developed the model through his efforts to respond to the problems in the aftermath of the Second World War such as employee morale, absenteeism and productivity (Sommer, 2009). With the utilization of the available tools, knowledge and capabilities, he started his full engagement in organizational action research (Foster, 2014). [...]


[...] (2015). ?Knowing is not enough; we must apply': reflections on a failed action learning application. Action Learning: Research And Practice, 78-84. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080 / Robinson, J. (2011). Action research in healthcare. Educational Action Research, 587-588. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080 / Salleh, H. (2006). Action research in Singapore education: constraints and sustainability. Educational Action Research, 513-523. [...]


[...] http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1080 /09650790903088037 Hafer, C. & Correy, B. (1999). Journal search results - Cite This For Me. Social Justice Research, 189-204. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1023 /a:1022144317302 Kitchen, J. & Stevens, D. (2008). Action research in teacher education: Two teacher-educators practice action research as they introduce action research to preservice teachers. Action Research, 7-28. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1177 /1476750307083716 Kitchen, J. [...]


[...] It is always advisable for the researcher to test the applicability of the selected course of action (Capobianco & Ní Ríordáin, 2015). The proposed changes also need constant monitoring and evaluation to be checked if they are in accordance with the set plans (Moreno, 2014). Act Action is the implementation phase in which the set plans have to be executed (Bhattarai, 2010). Since it is rare for the things to fall exactly as earlier planned, it is precise for the researcher to be prepared to make some deviations from the plan to get the best experience and feedback out of their work. [...]

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