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Effect of Congruency on Reaction Time and Error Rate

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  1. Abstract
  2. Method
    1. Participants
    2. Materials
    3. Procedure
    4. Data analysis
  3. Results
  4. Discussion
  5. References

This experiment was conducted as a way to look at top-down, versus bottom-up processing. Subjects read the names of colors off Stroop boards, written first in a congruent color of ink, and next in an incongruent color. This allowed an opportunity to analyze the data and examine the differences between the congruent and incongruent conditions. This provides for a deeper look into the way people process information.
Many variations of this experiment have been performed, and have indicated that the incongruent condition significantly slows down processing. Subjects usually perform more slowly in the incongruent condition, and also make more mistakes.

[...] Descriptive statistics were conducted on age, reaction time for the congruent condition, reaction time for the incongruent condition, error rate for the congruent condition, and error rate for the incongruent condition. Results There were statistical differences between the congruent and incongruent conditions. For reaction time, the congruent and incongruent conditions varied: for the congruent condition, the mean was 17.74 seconds; for the incongruent condition, the mean was 37.11 seconds (as seen in Table 1 and Figure 1.) In other words, the congruent condition had a significantly faster reaction time. [...]

[...] In one trial, congruency was the independent variable, and reaction time and error rate were the dependent variables. In the other trial, incongruency was the independent variable, and reaction time and error rate were the dependent variables. The purpose was to study what difference the congruent and incongruent conditions make on how quickly participants name the colors, and how accurate they are in doing so. We predicted that, as in the studies mentioned above, the congruent condition would lead to faster reaction times and lower error rates. [...]

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