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Global Relationship: Are Sexual Gender Roles Changing?

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  1. The 'ideal' model of the nuclear family in the first half of the XXth century
  2. In the early 1970s, this division has been denounced by feminists
  3. The process of socialization
  4. The 'public sphere' where the male and female roles are still differentiated

As defined by the Encyclopedia, a role, in the sociological sense, is a set of connected behaviors, rights and obligations as conceptualized by the actors in a social situation. It is an expected behavior in a given individual social status and social position. Since the 18th century, the justification for the masculine hierarchy over the feminine gender was part of the order of nature. These are especially the feminist struggles and their problems have led companies to consider the different roles that men and women can play in society. From this period, the sociological studies of gender relations and roles have grown. For years, the point of view that has dominated sociology in this area was a functionalist perspective. For example, with Parsons, who 'naturalized' gender difference, assigning the 'private sphere' and the function of education to women and reserving the public and professional sphere to men. If such studies have primarily focused on women, it now appears that the emancipation and transformation of social roles of each lead to a reconfiguration of the other, that is to say men. Is the commitment to children specifically for mothers? Does working, as has long been evoked, the main factor of masculine identities?

[...] However, men under 20 years are twice as numerous to work as the same age women. But the structure of jobs held by the working population of each sex are still very contrasted. Women work more in the Tertiary, while Industry sectors and the building trade remain strongly dominated by males. Manager positions are usually occupied by men / 3). Women are largely present in new sectors such as advertising, tourism, public relations, management of human resources, business communications, entertainment, culture. [...]


[...] : The "feminity and virility values" are more valued in the working class or upper middle class, than in the intellectual classes, in which indifferentiation is more valued Let me talk now about the "public sphere", where the male and female roles are still differentiated. Two good examples are schooling and the access to labor market. For a long time excluded from the educational system, girls are, from 1971, more likely than boys to enter university. School is mixed, but boys and girls are not necessarily side by side. [...]

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