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What are the main causes of social exclusion?

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  1. Introduction.
  2. The first cause of social exclusion.
    1. The meaning of work for social integration.
    2. Labour market evolutions or the outbreak of social exclusion process.
  3. Causes of social isolation.
    1. The loss of family and social links.
    2. School as an excluding machine.
  4. The matter of the economic and socio cultural background.
    1. Stigmatization: Sections of the society being socially inadmissible.
    2. The limitations of welfare: Dependence and kinky effects.
  5. Conclusion.
  6. Bibliography.

Shot in black and white cinema verity style, Hate (La Haine) follows a day in the life of three aimless, violence-prone, ethnically-diverse young men who hail from the same decaying housing project in Paris. Mathieu Kassovitz won the Best Director prize for this realistic movie at the Cannes Film Festival. Further than the cinematic side, La Haine aims at denouncing violence due to dismay, to precariousness. In a word, as it was shot in 1995, it illustrates the social issue that has become the keyword of the 95's presidential elections. More precisely, « social exclusion » is a dynamic process which leads to a loss of social links and of traditional marks. Furthermore, it is analysed through the notion of breaks, of dislocation. However, the strict definition of social exclusion is difficult to catch insofar as it gathers lots of dimensions, causes. Hence, it appears necessary to remind us the different origins of social exclusion in order to understand its complexity. Then, we should get the reason why sociologists speak about a multidimensional and cumulative process.

[...] In the same way, disabled people are rejected from labour market and/or social relationships because of their physical/mental handicap. Also, young and migrant workers aren't in an easier situation. Employers don't trust them because of their lack of experience or because of their origins. Those groups suffer from insecurity, precariousness and have to cope with machismo, racism and rebuttal. Accepted single parent families, unmarried person, childhood marked by poverty, women, migrant workers, young and disabled people are the sections of the population most exposed to social exclusion. [...]

[...] On the one hand, school should be the basis for a widely held understanding of the function of education in contemporary society On the other hand, Levitas writes that the failure of education is a particularly important and increasingly widespread factor of marginalization and economic and social exclusion According to Bourdieu, teachers are imposing a symbolic violence insofar as they repeat the prevailing power relations. The superiority of the dominant culture is pointed up. That is why this generates a self exclusion from low-class : they recognise the supposed inferiority of their culture. [...]

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