In 1952 the censorship of the Film Industry lead to significant ramifications. The film medium has experienced several hurdles that are better known of as censorship. Right from the beginning, American officials knew of the influential power of film and, therefore, its need to be controlled --by them, of course. Since the first couple decades of film, there have constantly been several different parties in charge of its regulations. By 1952, film has everyone from Catholic Bishops, to anti-communists trying to control it. In the midst of a changing American at the end of the second World War, a controversial movie slipped through the growing cracks. At the same time when some writers could not get any work, the film The Miracle was overturning the system. The case against this film ultimately changed the ruling on all films to come. In 1952 there were several other battles being fought, as well as a string of anti-communist films being released. At the end of the year many the careers of many Hollywood players were over, while others were just beginning. 1952 and its surrounding years changed the American film industry and its censorship forever.
[...] Since, as we already learned, film is such an influential medium, striking this industry seemed like a great place for HUAC to start (Olson the committee released Hollywood this consisted of the names of ten writers, directors and actors who were to be considered “blacklisted.” Others were to be added later, and all were accused of submitting communist propaganda into films. Most of the accused were called to give testimony in court where they could either name other “communists” in the industry, never work in film again, face jail time, or any combination of the above. [...]
[...] The Film industry itself was on a decline at this time, and it needed something more anti-communism films to regain audiences. The WWII veterans had returned home and moved to the suburbs; were they could start families, be good capitalists, and watch TV. As a result, a significant amount of theater audiences were lost. The theaters, which were now largely owned by independents, no longer had to spend extra money to screen these major studio films of Production Code Approval. [...]
[...] The Court decided under the First and Fourteenth Amendments that the license of a film could no longer be revoked for being “sacrilegious.” This decision is what meant that the New York Board of Regents lost their grounds for revocation. And finally, the Court decided that, “From the standpoint of freedom of speech and the press, a state has no legitimate interest in protecting any or all religions from views distasteful to them which is sufficient to justify prior restraints upon the expression of those views” (343 U.S. [...]
[...] At this time, the film industry was in the process of become a complete oligopoly. The majority of theaters were owned by eight studios, and these same eight studios produced the majority of the films, and they made-up the MPPDA. Their attempt at self- censorship, The Hays office, was initially ineffective so, naturally, the Catholic church had to erect their own team of censors. The Legion of Decency was formed by American Catholic Bishops and, with the help of Protestant organizations, called for a nationwide boycott of films. [...]
[...] The director and the studio decided to exhibit the film anyway, and in 1953 Preminger became the first Writer/Director to successfully defy the Code (Simmons 2). After 18 years of service, the Production Code began it's rapid decline in 1952, and by 1966 it stopped issuing licenses completely. It was evident from the beginning that film would be an extremely influential medium. It gave some people their first look at what life may be like on the other side of the World and opened a new world of expression. [...]
Online readingwith our online reader
Content validatedby our reading committee