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Essays in finance 61 to 88

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13 Jan 2009
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Accounting report to the board of direction

Essay - 3 pages - Finance

Today our company is using a cost-plus pricing approach to price its product. In fact this method used to price our products can be inadequate in certain cases for our firm. In the usual course this method is used in a monopoly situation. Today, we have to try to notify if our company has a...

09 Jan 2009
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Operational auditing

Essay - 9 pages - Finance

According to the Institute of Internal Auditors, Internal Auditing could be defined as "an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organisation's operations. It helps an organisation accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic,...

01 Dec 2008
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Economic activity, investments and technological policy

Essay - 7 pages - Finance

The concept of competitiveness of the national economies and the viability of the national productive systems in the context of globalization focuses on the role of innovative competitive advantages, which are related to the technological know-how. The competitive advantages of low production...

07 Oct 2008
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A look at corporate taxation

Essay - 4 pages - Finance

As any business withdraws and employs reduction of all or parts of its assets to cash or cash equivalents to its shareholders, the last step that is usually undertaken is the complete liquidation of the corporation and this denotes the end of the corporation's life as well as the...

07 Oct 2008
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Money advice

Essay - 6 pages - Finance

The trend of people being subjected to financial difficulty is increasing. The easy access to credit may provide convenience but it can also lead to overspending and consequently, overindebtedness. Some life-changing events such as loss of job and divorce can substantially add to debts. Being...

30 Sep 2008
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Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) theories: An overview of the main FDI theories

Essay - 6 pages - Finance

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) acquired an important role in the international economy after the Second World War. The increase of the volume of foreign direct investment was so sharp that economists considered FDI as a new stage of Capitalism after the classic Marxist theories of Imperialism....

25 Sep 2008
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Risk management and the use of derivatives

Essay - 7 pages - Finance

This paper investigates the use of derivatives in Risk Management. Deriving the value from an underlying asset or an index representing assets, derivatives bear the ability to accelerate gains or losses for a small initial outlay thus assisting corporations to manage risk and return...

25 Sep 2008
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Interdependence of norms in budgeting

Essay - 7 pages - Finance

Key (1940) contended that there was a lack of "attention from the basic budgeting problem (on the expenditure side), namely: On what basis shall it be decided to allocate x dollars to activity A instead of Activity B?" (1137, emphasis in original) The literature of the era was...

26 Aug 2008
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Capital budgeting methods

Essay - 7 pages - Finance

Capital budgeting is concerned with the process of producing, evaluating, selecting and controlling capital expenditures. In this context, capital budgeting decisions are critical. Winning projects typically produce positive cash flows for a long period of time, while failing projects do not...

12 Aug 2008
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Top-down or bottom-up valuation process?

Essay - 6 pages - Finance

Investors typically select investments that provide a rate of return, which compensates them for their time, the expected rate of inflation and the risk involved. In this context, the value of an investment is estimated based on the required rate of return, which is calculated using either the...

05 Aug 2008
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Efficient capital markets and the importance of behavioral finance

Essay - 7 pages - Finance

Efficient capital markets allow to consumers and companies to invest savings, borrow, and manage risk in the most effective way. Capital markets bring together companies, that seek to raise capital to invest in future performance and investors, who seek for a profitable return on their...

28 Jul 2008
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Critical discussion on the definition of assets and liabilities contained in the IASC Framework

Essay - 6 pages - Finance

Although it may come as a surprise to many non- accountants, the accounting profession internationally has encountered a great deal of problems in arriving at robust definitions for the elements of financial statements. Defining assets, liabilities, and gains and losses (income and expenditure)...

12 Jun 2008
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An investigation in to the problems with corporate pension funds

Essay - 12 pages - Finance

Beginning with the New Deal, efforts to secure the social and economic prosperity of employees after retirement have been developed. This process has lead to the evolution of the current system of corporate pension funds. Although millions of American workers invest in these funds each year, few...

04 Jun 2008
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An Investigation Into the State of Microfinance in Benin (2005)

Essay - 16 pages - Finance

Research on the economic and social development of countries in Africa demonstrates that there are a host of issues that must be addressed in the context of improving daily economic conditions for individual citizens. While some of these issues have been addressed by government agencies and...

14 Sep 2007
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Transatlantic trade (Amos Beyan)

Essay - 2 pages - Finance

The author defines racism to be “the ideology of exclusion or separation of people because of the color of their skin.” This separation was very prominent during the transatlantic trade because so many countries, including those of Africa, were involved in racism, by engaging in slave...

14 Sep 2007
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Harpoon Brewery

Essay - 2 pages - Finance

The brewing process begins with four ingredients: water, barley, hops and yeast. Harpoon does not put any preservatives or additives in their beer. Each step in the process can process 3,800 gallons at a time. There is one machine for each step except fermentation, which...

14 Sep 2007
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The Inner-Workings of Biogen Idec Inc.

Essay - 2 pages - Finance

As noted earlier in this report, Biogen Idec Inc. is an amalgamation of strengths. It has been the merger between IDEC Pharmaceuticals and Biogen. These two pharmaceutical giants have been as one corporation only as of November of 2003; therefore, there have been a very small number of...

12 Sep 2007
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Tax Reform

Essay - 2 pages - Finance

Tax reform and the US budget go hand in hand. While many people seek a tax reform, they must understand that the most significant factor in determining the types and amounts of taxes that are to be paid is the US budget. Typically, it would be expected that if a budget is in the red, taxation...

12 Sep 2007
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Corporate Corruption: Culture of Enron

Essay - 4 pages - Finance

Shareholder value was being diluted. It was worse than just being dishonest: stock options provided managers with strong incentives to get the value of their stocks up quickly - what mattered was not long-term strength but short-term appearances. Corporate officers responded to the...

04 Sep 2007
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Why I Think Markets are Efficient

Essay - 2 pages - Finance

Market efficiency, discovered by Eugene Fama, is the theory that at any given time, the prices of the market fully reflect all available information on a particular stock or and/or the market. Therefore no individual investor has any advantage over any other as all information is shared by...

04 Sep 2007
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Efficiency Overpowers Efforts to Chase Losses

Essay - 2 pages - Finance

The aim of this paper is to discuss Dr. Ryan Garvey's studies “Do Losses Linger? Evidence from proprietary stock trading,” while examining how this works inline with the Efficient Market Hypothesis. Through the research provided by Dr Garvey, it is expressed that professional traders...

21 Aug 2007
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Mortgages For First-Time Home Buyers: The Basics

Essay - 4 pages - Finance

Choosing a new home can be an overwhelming task, but even more daunting is choosing a mortgage lender to help you finance your new home. In your search for a home loan, it is important to know the different types of lenders as well as the different methods of shopping for a loan so that...

08 Aug 2007
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Retail Industry Analysis

Essay - 3 pages - Finance

The retail industry is flooded with products and services, all vying for market share and revenue. In order to succeed, the different firms must carefully understand and analyze the market they are in. They must ask questions about their rivals and the structure of the industry,...

03 Aug 2007
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The (Mis)Behavior of Markets: A Summary

Essay - 3 pages - Finance

Do markets really follow a random walk as modern financial theory suggests? Are we likely to experience a market crash as deadly as the likes of the Great Depression? What is the nature of volatility and how should it impact the way we model financial markets? Although definitive answers to these...

05 Apr 2007
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The effects of stock options on markets

Essay - 4 pages - Finance

Traditionally, stock option plans have been used as a way for companies to reward top management and "key" employees and link their interests with those of the company and other shareholders. More and more companies, however, now consider all of their employees as "key." As a result, there has...

23 Nov 2006
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Initial Public Offerings: an Outlook through Game Theory

Essay - 16 pages - Finance

Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) have a very special place in contemporary economics and finance. They represent the entrance on a deep and liquid market with access to almost unlimited reserves of capital from all over the world. But IPOs appear also as a short-term fund-raising tool, especially...

15 Nov 2006
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Microfinance: the Challenge of Accessing Global Capital Markets

Essay - 9 pages - Finance

The main theme of this project is the facilitation and development of microfinance, which is the “provision of loans, savings, insurance, payments, and other basic financial services to low-income populations” . The project is dedicated to identifying and evaluating existing...

27 Jul 2006
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Fair Value Implications for the Asset Mix of a Pension Fund

Essay - 86 pages - Finance

Pension funds serve to collect and manage an amount of capital, sufficient to make all payments to which participants of the fund are entitled based on the pension plan. The Akzo Nobel Pension Fund (APF) is responsible for the provision of pensions for all employees of Akzo Nobel in the...