While entering a supermarket and by looking at the labels of the various products indicating the source of the manufacturers, we rarely find ‘Made in the USA' labels. A portable DVD costs less than 85 Euros and is manufactured in Singapore; the label of a T-shirt decorated with a character of cartoon indicates ‘Made in China' and LCD screens come from Korea. In fact, there are strong chances that more than 75% of the small manufactured goods were produced in Asia and were transported in containers through the Pacific. It is not a revelation that the stores in the United States, as well as in Europe, sell many imported products.
The United States was always a mercantile nation and the role of the country in international business increased systematically in the last decades. The United States exported more than it imported for 30 years. In 2004, the international business of the United States added up to 2,900 billion dollars, the imports exceeded exports by more than 620 billion dollars. Among the products contributing more to the US deficit, one finds oil and manufactured goods.
Although oil is the major element of American trade, the increasing flood of imported manufactured goods also has important effects. Since the United States passed from an economy based on the manufacturing output to a saving in services, the economies of the countries of Asia filled the vacuum. The weaker price of work which is practiced there, together with less strict environmental regulations, results in less important production costs compensating for the associated costs with the international maritime transport.
China is the principal country of origin of the product imports manufactured in the United States, except for cars. The country is the second business partner of the United States. The maritime transport resulting from these new Asian imports, and products arriving from other countries, blocks the American ports. The majority of the imports arrive at destinations on ships designed to transport containers, and this growth of the sea traffic again poses technological, environmental, economic challenges of national security.
Shipping resulting from these new Asian imports, and products arriving from other countries, are stifling U.S. ports and surrounding communities. The majority of imports arrive at their destination on ships designed to carry containers, and the growth of maritime traffic poses new challenges, technological, environmental, economic and national security very seriously. These challenges are particularly acute in the U.S. but they have implications for several countries caught in the same net economic and commercial.
For many years the transportation of various products was done using cargo. The recent development of container ships has greatly contributed to the development of trade between continents through international shipping. Thus, container ships have responded to this need by providing transportation modularity and flexibility important, especially with automation of lifting equipment in ports.
The container was born in 1956 in the United States with the freighter Ideal X rebuilding the Pan-Atlantic Steamship, when the carrier McLean Trucking had begun shipping truck trailers without frames between New York and Houston. As an impatient driver, McLean was often in port when he delivered the goods or picked them up. He then came up with the idea of assembling the package, so far handled one by one in a box that would go directly from ship to truck.
Tags: maritime transport in the United States, shipping cargo, environmental consequences of universalization
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[...] If ignored, the flow expansion in shipping could have catastrophic consequences on the U.S. economy, on port communities and natural ecosystems. Better management and improved North American ports as a whole involving a reduction in waiting time of vessels and consequently a reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emission. Moreover, always about solutions to improve maritime transport, it seems that, given the trade between continents, transporting empty containers is preventable, provided that this does not only have an environmental impact positive, but also on the finances of shipping companies. [...]
[...] Many experts predict that increasing the number of trucks will lead to total blockage of the highway every morning with a traffic stop from the ports of San Pedro to the interchange thirty kilometers later. A spokesman for the Los Angeles Development Corporation told the Los Angeles Times in October 2004: "The system for transporting goods in the United States has reached its maximum capacity and the increase of imported products has been steady, yet have no expansion plan for transport that is consistent. " 4. [...]
[...] The environmental consequences of globalization: shipping containers in the U.S The context Upon entering a supermarket and looking at the labels indicating the different products from manufacturers, very few labels are found with the "Made in USA" tag. The portable DVD player costs less than 85 Euros and is manufactured in Singapore, the label of a T-shirt adorned with a cartoon character says "Made in China" and the LCD is from Korea. In fact, it is likely that more than 75% of small manufactures of each cart were produced in Asia and shipped in containers across the Pacific. [...]
[...] Once built, they will be the largest vessels for the transport of goods to transit the Suez Canal. Consultant based in Rotterdam (Netherlands), Mr. Dynamar predicted that 18,000 TEU vessels will be built by 2010. The ships are designed to tow cargo in container ships for $ 0.07 per mile / ton, down from the $ 0.10 per mile / ton Panamax ships today. These huge boats can barely navigate through the Straits of Malacca and will be unable to dock using existing infrastructure in the most important historical ports in the world. [...]
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