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The civil wars

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  1. Preconditions and role of the English reformation
  2. Conflicts between King and Parliament
    1. Financial conflicts
    2. Religious conflicts
    3. Conflicts over foreign policy
  3. Civil war and regicide
  4. The Republic and restauration of monarchy
  5. The 1688 revolution

The Reformation enhanced the authority of the King. The first Protestants were supporters of the king. They symbolized national authority. The Reformation gave full and unlimited powers to the king. However, the king did not act alone. He needed the support of his parliament. Under the reign of Henry VIII, the parliament acquired a new power. The translation of the Bible encouraged personal judgment in matter of religion and politics. It led to the rise of the individual conscience. The Puritans, not satisfied with Elizabeth's compromise, claimed more and more the right of resistance to national authority. But the Reformation alone cannot explain the whole 17th century. There were many conflicts opposing the Stuart kings to the Parliament.

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