The Gypsies are now recognized to have originated from northern India and to have arrived in Europe around the 14th century. This deprives the Gypsies of an historical homeland and a state able to protect their rights, even outside its borders. Moreover, their immigration in several waves created a scattered community, with a weak common consciousness and few solidarity ties between the different groups, based on linguistic, historical and occupational distinctions. Other dividing lines exist between the Gypsies, such as religion (Hindu, Muslim or Christian) even if their attachment to established religions appears to have been a matter of convenience rather than conviction , lifestyle (nomadic or sedentary), belonging to different tribes and countries. It is said, too, that another source of diversity is the fact that non-gypsy and quite often marginalized nomadic groups joined the Gypsies in their centuries-long trip from India or adopted their lifestyle in Europe and were thus de facto integrated into the Roma group by Western observers.
[...] The Roma and the wars in former Yugoslavia It seems relevant to deal with the fate of the Gypsies and the relations between the Gypsies and the states in the former Yugoslavia (except Macedonia) apart from the description of the situation in the emerging democracies, since in ex-Yugoslavia and mainly in Bosnia- Herzegovina and Kosovo, because of the wars, the public policies did not take place “normally”, in the democratic way they occurred in the Eastern Balkans and in Macedonia. [...]
[...] Orenstein, Erika Wilkens, Roma in expanding Europe, breaking the poverty cycle, report for the World Bank p3 Hugh Poulton, Balkans, minorities and states in conflict, Minirity rights publications p87 Zoltan Barany, The East European Gypsies, Cambridge University Press p9 Dena Ringold and others, op. cit., p4 Dena Ringold and others, p42 Zoltan Barany, p167 Zoltan Barany, p12 Dena Ringold,. p38 ibidem, pxv Zoltan Barany, p180 Zoltan Barany, p189-190 Hugh Poulton, p89 Zoltan Barany, p77-78 Hugh Poulton, p91 Zoltan Barany, p220-222 ibidem, p233-234 Dena Ringold, p20 Zoltan Barany, p272 Dena Ringold, p14 ibidem, p15 Zoltan Barany, p151 ibidem, p284 Zoltan Barany, p293 ibidem, p285-286 ibidem, [...]
[...] Finally, another aspect of the Gypsies-state's relations will be discussed since it is necessary not to deal only with the emerging democracies: the Gypsies and the wars in the Balkans (III). I. The situation of the Gypsies as a political problem The socio-economic situation of the Gypsies Several factors are responsible for the socio-economic situation of the Gypsies as it is today, the most notable is the lack of education. During the communist period, the Roma benefited from the state policies. [...]
[...] New and future member states benefited notably by the PHARE program that allocated 12 millions euros to Bulgaria and 10.06 millions to Romania for Roma-linked projects from 1993 to 2001. As far as employment is concerned, the national policies focus on increasing the employability of the Gypsies, notably through public work programs that prove, like in Bulgaria, that the Gypsies can be good employees. In Romania, initiatives took place too with the creation of local employment centers for the Gypsies and the Civil Service Law adopted in 1999 in the context of a new national strategy for the protection of Roma, that, by “stipulating that those who deal directly with the public in areas where an ethnic minority makes up 20% or more of the population must speak the minority's language”, will automatically increase the number of Roma state employees. [...]
[...] It seems to have some explanatory value as far as the President Iliescu from Romania (1990-1996) is concerned: He didn't show concern for the situation of the Gypsies and sometimes exploited the nationalist convictions of his allies. The governments under his rule, although theoretically closer to the people remained indifferent to the situation of the Roma and even “tacitly supported anti-Roma violence, as in June 1990 when Jiu Valley miners went on a rampage in Bucharest targeting, among others, Gypsies and killing dozens of them”. [...]
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