Diagnoses [of mental health disorders and illnesses], while expertly delineated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), rely heavily on the differential diagnoses method, in which clinicians systematically rule out other potential causes for present symptoms including (but not limited to): head trauma, pharmacological interactions or side effects, fever or infection, and drug induced euphoria or paranoia (Jacobson, 2011). Once other potential causes are excluded and the presence of mental health disorder established, most mental illnesses, such as Schizophrenia, are thought to have an identifiable period of onset. Schizophrenia, for instance, typically involve a psychotic break or episode in the late teens to mid twenties (Becker & Kilian, 2006).
Pervasive, chronic problems in interpersonal relations and personal characteristics without an identifiable onset may personality disorder. Generally thought of as distinct from mental illnesses, which are known to have a specific onset, personality disorders are a pervasive, integral part of one's personality. Symptoms and complications are chronic, and identification, diagnoses, and treatment are extremely difficult (Craissati et al., 2011). Both mental illnesses and personality disorders present various and unique challenges for patients and clinicians to overcome.
[...] There is ongoing debate as to whether antisocial personality and psychopathy are the same disorder, or if psychopathy represents a more severe end of the spectrum of anti-social tendencies (Craissati et al., 2011; Moran, 1999). Treatment is extremely different with antisocial personality disorder, for multiple reasons. As previously mentioned, personality disorders rarely respond to medication because they are integrally linked to one's being. Antisocial personality in particular is not one in which patients would likely seek treatment, as a lack of guilt or remorse are part of the disorder. [...]
[...] Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 444–454. Becker, T., & Kilian, R. (2006). Psychiatric services for people with severe mental illness across western Europe: what can be generalized from current knowledge about differences in provision, costs and outcomes of mental health care? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 9–16. doi: 10.1111 /j.1600- 0447.2005 .00711.x Craissati, J., Minoudis, P., Shaw, J., Stuart, J., Simons, S., & Joseph, N. (2011). Working With Personality Disordered Offenders: A Practioner's Guide. United Kingdom: Ministry of Justice. Jacobson, S. A. [...]
[...] (2011). Laboratory Medicine in Psychiatry and Behavioral Science. American Psychiatric Pub. Leucht, S., Corves, C., Arbter, D., Engel, R. R., Li, C., & Davis, J. M. (2009). Second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Lancet, 373(9657), 31–41. doi: 10.1016 /S0140- 6736(08)61764-X Moran, P. (1999). The epidemiology of antisocial personality disorder. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 231–242. doi: 10.1007 /s001270050138 Schumacher, J. E., Makela, E. [...]
[...] Diagnoses and Treatment of Schizophrenia and Antisocial Personality Disorder, Expansions on Excerpts from: Mental Illness and Personality Disorders in the UK: A Prison Sentence? “Diagnoses [of mental health disorders and illnesses], while expertly delineated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), rely heavily on the differential diagnoses method, in which clinicians systematically rule out other potential causes for present symptoms including (but not limited head trauma, pharmacological interactions or side effects, fever or infection, and drug induced euphoria or paranoia (Jacobson, 2011). [...]
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